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Table 2 Summary of included studies

From: Exploring adults’ experiences of sedentary behaviour and participation in non-workplace interventions designed to reduce sedentary behaviour: a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies

Primary author and country Year Abbreviated aim(s) of study N and sampling method Defining participant characteristics (population, gender and age) Data collection and analysis Investigating SB intervention Quality
Appraisal
Adams, Gill [37]
USA
2015 To investigate feasibility of an intervention aimed at reducing SB in overweight women. 64 Volunteers Overweight women (BMI > 25)
100% female
Mostly aged > 50 yrs.
Open ended questionnaire Inductive analysis +
Ball, Salmon, Giles-corti [43] Australia 2006 To investigate perceived intrapersonal, social and physical environmental influences on PA of women of different SES backgrounds. 56 Snowball Healthy adults: 19 high-SES, 19 mid-SES and 18 low-SES
100% female
Age range 18-65 yrs.
Semi-structured interview
Thematic analysis
  +
Biddle, Edwardson, Gorely [21] UK 2017 To explore experiences of a workshop to understand outcomes of an intervention aimed at reducing SB in those at risk of type 2 diabetes. 71 Purposive (but unclear) Adults at risk of type 2 diabetes
Data not present for n = 71 participants included in qualitative study
Evaluation sheets, progress phone calls, and telephone interview
Inductive analysis
Britten, Addington, Astill [22] UK 2017 To document participant’s views and effects of a dance programme. 22 (but unclear) Purposive Community dwelling older adults
95% female
Mean age 75 yrs
Three focus groups Thematic content analysis +
Chastin, Fitzpatrick, Andrews [31] UK 2014 To investigate the determinants of SB in older adults. 9 Convenience Older women
100% female
Age range 70-92 yrs
Semi-structured interview
Framework analysis /thematic analysis approach
  ++
Chen [29] Taiwan 2010 To explore barriers that older adults experience in PA participation. 90 Purposive Older adults residing in long-term care
66% female
Age range 65-90 yrs.
Interview
Content analysis
  ++
Cousins, Keating [20] Canada 1995 To identify factors to better understanding of life pathways leading women to PA or inactivity. 13 Theoretical Older women
100% female
Age over 60 yrs
Two focus groups consisting of active or inactive women Content analysis  
Curry, Duda, Thompson [49] UK 2015 To compare perceived PA and ST to objective data, and explore experiences of PA- and ST amongst South Asian women in the UK. 24 Purposive South Asian women - 92% were either obese or overweight
100% female
Age range 36-67 yrs
Semi-structured interview
Deductive content analysis
  ++
Damush, Plue, Bakas [41] USA 2007 To elicit barriers and facilitators of exercise after stroke to inform the development of post-stroke programme. 13 Convenience (but unclear) Stroke survivors
38% female
Mean age 59 yrs
Three focus groups
Iterative consensus process
  ++
Deliens, Deforche, Bourdeaudhuij [47] Belgium 2015 To identify determinants of and recommendations towards PA and SB in Belgian university students. 46 Snowball University students
63% female
Mean age 21 yrs.
Seven focus groups
Inductive thematic approach
  ++
Emadian, Thompson [23] UK 2017 To explore factors influencing PA and ST in overweight or obese South Asian men living in the UK. 31 Purposive Overweight or obese South Asian men
100% Male
Mean age 44 yrs
Semi-structured interview
Content analysis
  ++
Ezeugwu, Garga, Manns [24] Canad 2017 To investigate perceptions of SB in ambulatory stroke survivors. 13 Purposive Stroke survivor,
46% female
Age range 26–75
Semi-structured interview
Thematic analysis
  ++
Grossman, Stewart [33] USA 2003 To explore perceptions, motivations and barriers of PA in underactive community dwelling older adults. 33 Convenience Older adults
54% female
Mean age 80 yrs.
Qualitative interview Standard coding, categorising, indexing, and integration techniques  
Greenwood-Hickman, Renz, Rosenberg [42] USA 2016 To explore motivators, barriers, and impact of SB reduction among a group of overweight older adults. 24 Convenience Overweight or obese older adults
67% female
Age range 60-84 yrs.
Semi-structured telephone interview Inductive thematic approach ++
Guell. Shefer, Griffin [32] UK 2016 To investigate how active living relates to later life experiences, aspirations and strategies of healthy ageing. 27 Purposive Older adults
44% female
Age range 65–80
Semi-structured interviews and observations Thematic analysis   ++
Keegan, Middleton, Henderson [48] UK 2016 To identify which socio-environmental factors motivate PA and/or SB, in adults. 15 Stratified Working-age adults
53% female
Age range 31–59
Semi-structured interview
Inductive content analysis
  ++
Kolt, Paterson and Cheung [35] New Zealand 2006 Identify the barriers to PA participation in sedentary older Tongan adults. 24 Snowball Tongan adults
50% female
Age range 60-79 yrs.
Focus groups
Descriptive qualitative methodology
  ++
Leask, Sandlund, Skelton [25] UK 2017 Co-create a tailored public health intervention to reduce SB in older adults. 11 Volunteers Older adults
55% female
Age range 66-82 yrs.
Ten interactive co-creation workshops Qualitative content analysis ++
Mabry, Al-Busaidi, Reeves [30] Oman 2013 To identify policy and programme options to address physical inactivity and prolonged sitting in Omani adults. 10 Purposive Public health managers
50% female
Semi-structured interview
Thematic content analysis and a framework approach
  ++
Martinez-Ramos, Martin-Borras, Trujillo [38] Spain 2015 To examine the opinions of overweight, sedentary patients on ways to reduce this behaviour, their willingness to change, and prospect of receiving help. 23 Convenience Overweight or obese adults
65% female
Age range 25-63 yrs.
Five group and five semi-structured interviews
Thematic content analysis
  +
Matei, Thune-Boyle, Hamer [34] UK 2015 To explore participant’s views towards an intervention to reduce ST and increase activity in older adults. 35 (but unclear) Purposive Older adults
Aged between 60 and 75
Semi-structured interview
Thematic analysis
+
McEwan, Tam-Seto, Dogra [26] Belgium 2017 To better understand the perceptions of older adults towards SB. 26 Volunteers Older adults
77% female
Age mean 74 yrs.
Four focus groups and field notes Content analysis   ++
Paxton, Anderson, Sakar [39] USA 2016 To identify beliefs, perceptions, and recurrent themes associated with breaking up prolonged periods of sitting. 31 Convenience/Purposive (but unclear) Breast cancer survivors,
100% female
Age range 22- 75 yrs.
Semi-structured telephone interview
Content data analysis
  ++
Shuval, Hebert, Siddiqi [44] USA 2013 To explore impediments and enablers to PA and investigate attitudes toward SB. 25 Purposive Low income and ethnic minority adults
52% female
Age range 30-54 yrs.
Semi-structured interview
Framework approach
  ++
Smetaniuk, Johnson, Creurer [27] Canada 2017 To examine students’ perceptions of factors that influence PA and SB. 43 Convenience Students in Physical Therapy Age range 22-33 yrs Photovoice analysis – document, four focus groups
Thematic analysis
  +
Teychenne, Ball, Salmon [46] Australia 2011 To explore influences on SB in women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and who are experiencing depressive symptoms. 18 Random Disadvantaged women experiencing depressive symptoms
100% female
Age range 18-46 yrs
Semi-structured telephone interview
Thematic analysis
  ++
Teychenne, Ball, Salmon [45] Australia 2012 To investigate feasibility of two intervention approaches (one print-based and one web- based) designed to promote PA and reduce SB amongst women living in socio-economically disadvantaged areas. 42 Random Women living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods and key stakeholder
100% female
Mean age 50 yrs
Questionnaire
Thematic analysis
++
Thomsen, Beyer, Aadahl [36] Denmark 2015 To examine how patients with rheumatoid arthritis describe their daily SB. 15 Purposive (but not stated) People living with rheumatoid arthritis
66% female
Age range 23-73 yrs.
Semi-structured interview
Thematic analysis
  ++
Trinh, Arbour- Nicopoulos, Sabiston [40] Canada 2015 To examine perceptions of SB and the preferences for a SB intervention of men on androgen-deprivation therapy. 27 Convenience (but not stated) Prostate cancer survivors
100% Male
Age mean 74 yrs.
Nine focus groups
Thematic analysis
  ++
Van Dyck, Mertens, Cardon [28] Belgium 2017 To examine determinants of PA and SB and needs regarding PA intervention in recently retired adults. 37 Convenience Recently retired adults
51% female
Mean age 63 yrs.
Four focus groups Thematic analysis ++
  1. Definition of terms in Table 2: SB Sedentary Behaviour, BMI Body Mass Index, PA Physical Activity, ST Sedentary Time, n Number,, SES Socio-Economic Status, UK United Kingdom, USA United States of America, yrs. Years