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Table 2 Summary of included studies

From: Exploring adults’ experiences of sedentary behaviour and participation in non-workplace interventions designed to reduce sedentary behaviour: a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies

Primary author and country Year Abbreviated aim(s) of study N and sampling method Defining participant characteristics (population, gender and age) Data collection and analysis Investigating SB intervention Quality Appraisal
Adams, Gill [37] USA 2015 To investigate feasibility of an intervention aimed at reducing SB in overweight women. 64 Volunteers Overweight women (BMI > 25) 100% female Mostly aged > 50 yrs. Open ended questionnaire Inductive analysis +
Ball, Salmon, Giles-corti [43] Australia 2006 To investigate perceived intrapersonal, social and physical environmental influences on PA of women of different SES backgrounds. 56 Snowball Healthy adults: 19 high-SES, 19 mid-SES and 18 low-SES 100% female Age range 18-65 yrs. Semi-structured interview Thematic analysis   +
Biddle, Edwardson, Gorely [21] UK 2017 To explore experiences of a workshop to understand outcomes of an intervention aimed at reducing SB in those at risk of type 2 diabetes. 71 Purposive (but unclear) Adults at risk of type 2 diabetes Data not present for n = 71 participants included in qualitative study Evaluation sheets, progress phone calls, and telephone interview Inductive analysis
Britten, Addington, Astill [22] UK 2017 To document participant’s views and effects of a dance programme. 22 (but unclear) Purposive Community dwelling older adults 95% female Mean age 75 yrs Three focus groups Thematic content analysis +
Chastin, Fitzpatrick, Andrews [31] UK 2014 To investigate the determinants of SB in older adults. 9 Convenience Older women 100% female Age range 70-92 yrs Semi-structured interview Framework analysis /thematic analysis approach   ++
Chen [29] Taiwan 2010 To explore barriers that older adults experience in PA participation. 90 Purposive Older adults residing in long-term care 66% female Age range 65-90 yrs. Interview Content analysis   ++
Cousins, Keating [20] Canada 1995 To identify factors to better understanding of life pathways leading women to PA or inactivity. 13 Theoretical Older women 100% female Age over 60 yrs Two focus groups consisting of active or inactive women Content analysis  
Curry, Duda, Thompson [49] UK 2015 To compare perceived PA and ST to objective data, and explore experiences of PA- and ST amongst South Asian women in the UK. 24 Purposive South Asian women - 92% were either obese or overweight 100% female Age range 36-67 yrs Semi-structured interview Deductive content analysis   ++
Damush, Plue, Bakas [41] USA 2007 To elicit barriers and facilitators of exercise after stroke to inform the development of post-stroke programme. 13 Convenience (but unclear) Stroke survivors 38% female Mean age 59 yrs Three focus groups Iterative consensus process   ++
Deliens, Deforche, Bourdeaudhuij [47] Belgium 2015 To identify determinants of and recommendations towards PA and SB in Belgian university students. 46 Snowball University students 63% female Mean age 21 yrs. Seven focus groups Inductive thematic approach   ++
Emadian, Thompson [23] UK 2017 To explore factors influencing PA and ST in overweight or obese South Asian men living in the UK. 31 Purposive Overweight or obese South Asian men 100% Male Mean age 44 yrs Semi-structured interview Content analysis   ++
Ezeugwu, Garga, Manns [24] Canad 2017 To investigate perceptions of SB in ambulatory stroke survivors. 13 Purposive Stroke survivor, 46% female Age range 26–75 Semi-structured interview Thematic analysis   ++
Grossman, Stewart [33] USA 2003 To explore perceptions, motivations and barriers of PA in underactive community dwelling older adults. 33 Convenience Older adults 54% female Mean age 80 yrs. Qualitative interview Standard coding, categorising, indexing, and integration techniques  
Greenwood-Hickman, Renz, Rosenberg [42] USA 2016 To explore motivators, barriers, and impact of SB reduction among a group of overweight older adults. 24 Convenience Overweight or obese older adults 67% female Age range 60-84 yrs. Semi-structured telephone interview Inductive thematic approach ++
Guell. Shefer, Griffin [32] UK 2016 To investigate how active living relates to later life experiences, aspirations and strategies of healthy ageing. 27 Purposive Older adults 44% female Age range 65–80 Semi-structured interviews and observations Thematic analysis   ++
Keegan, Middleton, Henderson [48] UK 2016 To identify which socio-environmental factors motivate PA and/or SB, in adults. 15 Stratified Working-age adults 53% female Age range 31–59 Semi-structured interview Inductive content analysis   ++
Kolt, Paterson and Cheung [35] New Zealand 2006 Identify the barriers to PA participation in sedentary older Tongan adults. 24 Snowball Tongan adults 50% female Age range 60-79 yrs. Focus groups Descriptive qualitative methodology   ++
Leask, Sandlund, Skelton [25] UK 2017 Co-create a tailored public health intervention to reduce SB in older adults. 11 Volunteers Older adults 55% female Age range 66-82 yrs. Ten interactive co-creation workshops Qualitative content analysis ++
Mabry, Al-Busaidi, Reeves [30] Oman 2013 To identify policy and programme options to address physical inactivity and prolonged sitting in Omani adults. 10 Purposive Public health managers 50% female Semi-structured interview Thematic content analysis and a framework approach   ++
Martinez-Ramos, Martin-Borras, Trujillo [38] Spain 2015 To examine the opinions of overweight, sedentary patients on ways to reduce this behaviour, their willingness to change, and prospect of receiving help. 23 Convenience Overweight or obese adults 65% female Age range 25-63 yrs. Five group and five semi-structured interviews Thematic content analysis   +
Matei, Thune-Boyle, Hamer [34] UK 2015 To explore participant’s views towards an intervention to reduce ST and increase activity in older adults. 35 (but unclear) Purposive Older adults Aged between 60 and 75 Semi-structured interview Thematic analysis +
McEwan, Tam-Seto, Dogra [26] Belgium 2017 To better understand the perceptions of older adults towards SB. 26 Volunteers Older adults 77% female Age mean 74 yrs. Four focus groups and field notes Content analysis   ++
Paxton, Anderson, Sakar [39] USA 2016 To identify beliefs, perceptions, and recurrent themes associated with breaking up prolonged periods of sitting. 31 Convenience/Purposive (but unclear) Breast cancer survivors, 100% female Age range 22- 75 yrs. Semi-structured telephone interview Content data analysis   ++
Shuval, Hebert, Siddiqi [44] USA 2013 To explore impediments and enablers to PA and investigate attitudes toward SB. 25 Purposive Low income and ethnic minority adults 52% female Age range 30-54 yrs. Semi-structured interview Framework approach   ++
Smetaniuk, Johnson, Creurer [27] Canada 2017 To examine students’ perceptions of factors that influence PA and SB. 43 Convenience Students in Physical Therapy Age range 22-33 yrs Photovoice analysis – document, four focus groups Thematic analysis   +
Teychenne, Ball, Salmon [46] Australia 2011 To explore influences on SB in women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and who are experiencing depressive symptoms. 18 Random Disadvantaged women experiencing depressive symptoms 100% female Age range 18-46 yrs Semi-structured telephone interview Thematic analysis   ++
Teychenne, Ball, Salmon [45] Australia 2012 To investigate feasibility of two intervention approaches (one print-based and one web- based) designed to promote PA and reduce SB amongst women living in socio-economically disadvantaged areas. 42 Random Women living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods and key stakeholder 100% female Mean age 50 yrs Questionnaire Thematic analysis ++
Thomsen, Beyer, Aadahl [36] Denmark 2015 To examine how patients with rheumatoid arthritis describe their daily SB. 15 Purposive (but not stated) People living with rheumatoid arthritis 66% female Age range 23-73 yrs. Semi-structured interview Thematic analysis   ++
Trinh, Arbour- Nicopoulos, Sabiston [40] Canada 2015 To examine perceptions of SB and the preferences for a SB intervention of men on androgen-deprivation therapy. 27 Convenience (but not stated) Prostate cancer survivors 100% Male Age mean 74 yrs. Nine focus groups Thematic analysis   ++
Van Dyck, Mertens, Cardon [28] Belgium 2017 To examine determinants of PA and SB and needs regarding PA intervention in recently retired adults. 37 Convenience Recently retired adults 51% female Mean age 63 yrs. Four focus groups Thematic analysis ++
  1. Definition of terms in Table 2: SB Sedentary Behaviour, BMI Body Mass Index, PA Physical Activity, ST Sedentary Time, n Number,, SES Socio-Economic Status, UK United Kingdom, USA United States of America, yrs. Years