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Table 5 Three multivariable models demonstrating predictors of three types of smoking habits, Tehran, 2013–2015

From: Lifetime prevalence and correlates of smoking behavior in Iranian adults’ population; a cross-sectional study

Predictors Cigarette Smoking Waterpipe Smoking Exposure to Second-Hand Smoking
Adjusted OR (95% CI) P-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P-value
Lifetime waterpipe smoking 1.65 (1.15–2.36) 0.007   1.47 (1.12–1.91) 0.005
Lifetime exposure to second hand smoking 1.19 (0.85–1.66) 0.322 1.47 (1.13–1.92) 0.004  
Cigarette Smoking (Lifetime vs. never)   1.55 (1.08–2.21) 0.018 1.08 (0.77–1.50) 0.663
Lifetime drug use (cumulative number)
 Never 1   1   1
 1–50 6.67 (2.52–17.64) < 0.001 1.70 (0.76–4.22) 0.229 1.15 (0.53–2.50) 0.716
 51–500 2.98 (1.26–7.07) 0.013 1.64 (0.81–3.81) 0.219 0.76 (0.38–1.53) 0.444
  > 500 7.84 (3.45–17.85) < 0.001 0.75 (0.42–1.48) 0.380 1.15 (0.64–2.09) 0.632
 Test for trend 2.04 (1.61–2.59) < 0.001 0.99 (0.81–1.20) 0.880 1.01 (0.85–1.21) 0.881
Lifetime alcohol intake – cumulative amount (g)
 Never    1   1
  ≤ 500 4.52 (2.80–7.29) < 0.001 2.86 (1.86–4.40) < 0.001 1.22 (0.81–1.84) 0.334
 500–5000 4.54 (2.77–7.46) < 0.001 3.93 (2.50–6.18) < 0.001 1.33 (0.86–2.05) 0.196
  > 5000 5.71 (3.49–9.34) < 0.001 3.55 (2.23–5.67) < 0.001 1.76 (1.14–2.72) 0.011
 Test for trend 1.88 (1.61–2.18) < 0.001 1.65 (1.43–1.91) < 0.001 1.19 (1.04–1.37) 0.009
 History of depression 1.81 (1.22–2.70) 0.003 1.78 (1.30–2.44) < 0.001 1.46 (1.14–1.89) 0.003
Categorized life event number
 0 1   1   1
 1–2 1.77 (1.08–2.88) 0.022 1.05 (0.74–1.52) 0.773 1.32 (0.99–1.76) 0.059
  > 3 1.94 (1.15–3.29) 0.013 1.28 (0.85–1.91) 0.230 1.99 (1.44–2.75) < 0.001
 Test for trend 1.32 (1.04–1.69) 0.024 1.14 (0.94–1.39) 0.181 1.42 (1.21–1.67) < 0.001
Age
  > 20 1   1   1
 20–29.999 3.26 (1.51–7.03) 0.003 1.70 (1.05–2.74) 0.029 1.31 (1.04–2.60) 0.173
 30–39.999 3.77 (1.75–8.13) 0.001 0.86 (0.53–1.41) 0.557 1.10 (0.52–1.36) 0.646
 40–50 5.27 (2.37–11.72) < 0.000 0.25 (0.14–0.47) < 0.001 1.26 (0.75–1.74) 0.293
 Male sex 6.01 (3.12–8.77) < 0.001 2.47 (1.83–3.34) < 0.001 0.54 (0.42–0.70) < 0.001
 Years of education 0.96 (0.91–1.01) 0.122 0.99 (0.94–1.03) 0.536 0.92 (0.89–0.95) < 0.001