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Table 2 Gender specific prevalence of different types of smoking among adults aged 15–50, Tehran, 2013–2015

From: Lifetime prevalence and correlates of smoking behavior in Iranian adults’ population; a cross-sectional study

Variables Study population N (%) Male Female Statistical test OR (95% CI) P value
Waterpipe Smoking
 Never 803 (76.10) 331 (64.65) 472 (86.92) Simple logistic 0.27 (0.20, 0.37) < 0.001
 Ever 252 (23.90) 181 (35.35) 71 (13.08)   
 Current 176 (16.70) 127 (24.80) 49 (9.02) Simple logistic 0.27 (0.19, 0.39) < 0.001
 Past 76 (7.20) 54 (10.55) 22 (4.06) 0.28 (0.17, 0.48) < 0.001
 Age at first Waterpipe Smoking 20.30 (5.65) 19.95 (5.45) 20.85 (5.93) Simple logistic 1.05 (1.00, 1.10) 0.039
Waterpipe Smoking – duration (years)
  ≤ 5 109 (10.35) 67 (13.09) 42 (7.73) Simple logistic 0.44 (0.29, 0.66) < 0.001
  > 5 143 (13.55) 114 (22.27) 29 (5.34) 0.18 (0.12, 0.27) < 0.001
  ≤ 250 121 (11.5) 67 (13.09) 42 (7.73) Simple logistic 1
  > 250 127 (12.1) 114 (22.27) 29 (5.34) 0.28 (0.20, 0.38) < 0.001
Cigarette smoking
 Never 843 (79.75) 329 (64.13) 514 (94.49) Simple logistic 1
 Ever 214 (20.25) 184 (35.87) 30 (5.51) 0.1 (0.07, 0.16) < 0.001
 Current 152 (14.38) 130 (25.34) 22 (4.04) Simple logistic 0.11 (0.07, 0.17) < 0.001
 Past 62 (5.87) 54 (10.53) 8 (1.47) 0.09 (0.04, 0.20) < 0.001
 Age at first cigarette smoking 19.67 (4.71) 18.95 (4.39) 22.42 (4.95) Simple logistic 1.13 (1.04, 1.23) 0.004
Cigarette smoking – duration (years)
  ≤ 10 122 (11.50) 100 (19.49) 22 (4.04) Simple logistic 0.14 (0.87, 0.22) < 0.001
  > 10 92 (8.70) 84 (16.37) 8 (1.47) 0.06 (0.03, 0.13) < 0.001
Cigarette smoking (total pack-years)
  ≤ 5 165 (15.60) 140 (27.40) 26 (4.78) Simple logistic 0.11 (0.07, 0.18) < 0.001
  > 5 46 (4.40) 42 (8.22) 4 (0.73) 0.06 (0.02, 0.17) < 0.001
Second-Hand Smoking
 Never 664 (63.00) 344 (67.32) 320 (58.93) Simple logistic 1
 Ever 390 (37.00) 167 (32.68) 223 (41.07) 1.43 (1.11, 1.85) 0.005
Second-Hand Smoking – duration (years)
  ≤ 10 101 (9.58) 43 (8.41) 58 (10.68) Simple logistic 1.45 (0.95, 2.12) 0.085
 10–20 139 (13.19) 59 (11.55) 80 (14.73) 1.46 (1.01, 2.11) 0.045
  > 20 150 (14.23) 65 (12.72) 85 (15.65) 1.43 (0.98, 2.01) 0.062
Second-Hand Smoking – age period
 Before 19 years old 170 (16.13) 83 (16.24) 87 (16.02) Simple logistic 1.13 (0.80, 1.58) 0.488
 After 20 years old 80 (7.59) 24 (4.70) 56 (10.31) 2.51 (1.52, 4.14) < 0.001
 Throughout life 140 (13.28) 60 (11.74) 80 (14.73) 1.43 (0.99, 2.07) 0.055
Drug abuse
 Never 984 (93.27) 445 (86.91) 540 (90.30) Simple logistic 1
 Ever 71 (6.73) 67 (13.09) 4 (0.70) 0.04 (0.01, 0.12) < 0.001
History of depression
 Yes 170 (16.14) 55 (10.78) 115 (21.18) Simple logistic 1
 No 883 (83.86) 455 (89.22) 428 (78.82) 2.22 (1.57, 3.14) < 0.001
Physical activity
 Acceptable MET/week 415 (39.52) 301 (59.14) 114 (21.07) Simple logistic 1
 Lower than acceptable 436 (60.48) 208 (40.86) 427 (78.93) 5.42 (4.13, 7.11) < 0.001