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Table 3 Description of health system attributes and factors associated with perceived access to cervical cancer treatment and care from health worker surveys

From: Determinants of access and utilization of cervical cancer treatment and palliative care services in Harare, Zimbabwe

Participant typeHealth worker [N=80]
Variablesn (%)Bivariate analysis p-valueLogistic regression analysis p-value
Mean age of health workers37 (SD=10)  
 23 - 3015 (19)0.947-
 31 – 4042 (54)0.162 
 41 – 4915(19)0.947 
 54+6 (8)0.015 
Mean number of years of experience of health workers
 1 – 512 (SD=10)  
 6 – 1022 (28)0.469 
 11 – 2027 (34)0.046-
 23+20 (26)
9 (12)
0.432
0.002
 
Health facilities in the survey
 Parirenyatwa Hospital42 (54)  
 Harare Hospital26 (33)--
 Island Hospice9 (12)  
 Cancer Centre1 (1)  
Continuous Professional Development support
 Yes62 (80)  
 No8 (10)  
 Not applicable8 (10)0.306-
Institutions of basic training
 University of Zimbabwe17 (22) 0.046
 National University of Science and Technology3 (4)0.2140.959
 Ministry of Health and Child Welfare58 (74) Ref
Specialization
 Yes41 (53)0.645 
 No37 (47) -
Adequacy of health professionals
 Yes9 (11)  
 No67 (86)0.360 
 Do not know2 (3) -
Motivation
 Yes54 (69)  
 No18 (23)0.161 
 Not applicable6 (8) -
Remuneration satisfaction
 Yes5 (6)  
 No67 (86)0.497 
 Not applicable6 (8) -
Relationship with patients
 Excellent31 (40)  
 Good44 (56)0.592 
 Poor2 (3) -
 Refused to comment1 (1)  
Knowledge of national cancer policy
 Yes30 (38)0.1320.422
 No48 (62) Ref
Knowledge of cervical cancer policy
 Yes30 (38)0.0490.456
 No48 (62) Ref
Adequacy of policies for treatment of cervical cancer
 Yes44 (56) 0.693
 No34 (44)0.026Ref
Support treatment seeking abroad
 Yes58 (74)0.432 
 No20 (26) -
Disease presentation
 Early3 (4)0.496 
 Late75 (96) -
Service quality perceptions
 Excellent22 (28)  
 Good46 (59)0.6130.035
 Poor8 (10)  
 Do not know2 (3)  
Screening services at health facility
 Yes9 (12)0.002 
 No69 (88) -
Strength of surveillance system for cervical cancer
 Yes18 (23)  
 No57 (73)0.008 
 Do not know3 (3) -
Adequacy of basic equipmenta
 Yes45 (58)  
 No27 (34)0.984 
 Do not know6 (8) -
Modern equipment adequacya
 Yes40 (51)<0.0010.591
 No27 (35)  
 Do not know11 (14)  
Functional equipmenta
 Yes36 (46)0.633 
 No34 (44)  
 Do not know8 (10) -
Electricity challengesa
 Yes7 (9)0.0010.036
 No52 (67)  
 Do not know19 (24)  
Water challengesa
 Yes38 (49)0.0090.674
 No24 (31)  
 Do not know16 (20)  
Cancer drug stock-outsa
 Yes7 (9)0.0010.143
 No28 (36)  
 Do not know43 (55)  
Analgesic adequacya
 Yes39 (50)0.773 
 No13 (17)  
 Do not know26 (33) -
Analgesic stock-outsa
 Yes17 (22)0.2030.639
 No34 (43)  
 Do not know27 (35)  
Challenges faced in seeking treatment
 Finances29 (37) 0.066
 Transport49 (67)0.078 
Knowledge of clinical guidelines for cervical cancer
 Yes59 (75)  
 No13 (17)  
 Do not know6 (8)0.757 
  1. aOutputs from model 2, bold show significance or close (p < 0.05). Outcome variable was perception of access to treatment and care by health workers