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Table 2 Determinants of access and utilization of cervical cancer treatment and care from healthy women and patient surveys

From: Determinants of access and utilization of cervical cancer treatment and palliative care services in Harare, Zimbabwe

Participant typeaHealthy women with perceptions of access to treatment if diagnosed of cervical cancer (n = 70)Cervical cancer patients treated (n = 92) [N = 134]
VariablesOR, (95% CI)p valueOR, (95% CI)p value
Individual factorsb
 Knowledge of prevention0.34 (0.06 to 1.88)0.2182.50 (0.53 to 11.97)0.248
 Knowledge of causes6.18 (1.03 to 37.14)0.0460.13 (0.02 to 0.68)0.016
 Perception of availability of treatment services1.08 (0.36 to 3.23)0.8891.89 (0.65 to 5.54)0.244
 Affordability of treatment services0.50 (0.17 to 1.43)0.1971.57 (0.45 to 5.59)0.480
 Locus of control regarding cervical cancer0.97 (0.39 to 2.42)0.9492.90 (1.30 to 6.45)0.009
 Perception of threats from cervical cancer1.42 (0.61 to 3.28)0.4120.49 (0.15 to 1.57)0.229
 Perception on medical tourism2.25 (0.95 to 5.34)0.0640.91 (0.42 to 1.97)0.819
 Usage of health services in last 6 months1.74 (0.55 to 5.45)0.344
Societal factorsb
 Perception of availability of prevention technologies (HPV vaccination and screening)0.82 (0.45 to 1.50)0.5210.91 (0.42 to 1.97)0.777
 Perceptions of availability of equipment0.97 (0.36 to 2.58)0.9460.51 (0.21 to 1.22)0.129
 Social support0.54 (0.18 to 1.68)0.2910.28 (0.07 to 1.15)0.078
 Beliefs0.19 (0.02 to 1.77)0.1450.70 (0.07 to 6.76)0.758
 Attitudes1.53 (0.37 to 6.25)0.5550.24 (0.03 to 1.83)0.168
Health system factorsb
 Perception of training of Health Professionals2.19 (0.73 to 6.60)0.1620.88 (0.08 to 9.32)0.912
 Perceptions of adequacy of specialists10.77 (3.10 to 37.32)< 0.0017.32 (1.53 to 35.06)0.013
 Quality of care0.19 (0.03 to 1.45)0.110
 Satisfaction27.15 (1.61 to 458.85)0.022
Accessibility of health facilitiesc
 Distance from nearest health facility
  Less than 10 km1.46 (0.13 to 16.64) 1.24 (0.29 to 5.26)0.775
  21 to 40 kmRef Ref
 Mode of transport to nearest health facility
  Walking0.08 (0.03 to 0.24)0.7590.21 (0.03 to 1.80)0.155
  Public transport0.75 (0.13 to 4.51)0.21 (0.02 to 1.93)0.169
  Private carRef Ref
Time to travel to nearest health facility < 0.001  
  30 or less minutes0.87 (0.31 to 2.43)0.0151.50 (0.29 to 7.70)0.624
  31 to 60 min0.83 (0.12 to 5.63)0.848
  90 or more minutesRef0.794Ref
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  1. aFor healthy women, proxy indicator of access to treatment was used based on their perceptions of whether they would access treatment services for cervical cancer if diagnosed. bModel 1 controlled for disease stage for patients and religion and ethnicity for healthy women, c Model 2 controlled for financial barriers for patients and religion and ethnicity for healthy women. Bold shows factors that are significant (p < 0.05)