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Table 3 Logistic regression analysis of the relationship between living arrangements and depressive symptoms adjusted by all covariates

From: Association of living arrangements with depressive symptoms among older adults in China: a cross-sectional study

VariableOR95% CI
Living arrangements
Living with spouseLiving with child  
YesNo1 
Yes1.23**(1.06,1.42)
NoNo1.40*(1.03,1.92)
Yes1.33(0.94,1.88)
Sociodemographic variables
 Gender
  Male1 
  Female2.13***(1.75,2.60)
 Age
  60–691 
  70–790.91(0.77,1.07)
  ≥ 800.56***(0.41,0.77)
 Marriage
  Married1 
  Unmarried/widowed/divorced1.11(0.80,1.54)
 Education level
  Illiterate1 
  Primary school0.89(0.77,1.04)
  Middle school0.65***(0.52,0.82)
  High school or above0.54***(0.39,0.76)
 Area
  Rural1 
  Urban0.63***(0.51,0.78)
Health behavior
 Smoking
  No1 
  Quit1.15(0.90,1.46)
  Now1.28**(1.06,1.56)
 Drinking
  No1 
  Seldom1.18(0.89,1.57)
  Often1.03(0.85,1.25)
 Social activitya
  No1 
  Yes0.84**(0.73,0.95)
Health condition
 BMI
  Underweight1 
  Normal0.80*(0.64,1.00)
  Overweight0.58***(0.45,0.75)
  Obse0.54**(0.37,0.78)
 ADL disabilityb
  Independent1 
  Dependent2.65***(2.08,3.39)
 Self-reported health
  Good1 
  Poor3.15***(2.68,3.70)
 Chronic disease
  01 
  11.25*(1.04,1.50)
  21.34**(1.10,1.62)
  ≥ 32.06***(1.71,2.49)
  1. aReference categories for social activity is people who had never done any social activities in the last month
  2. bReference categories for ADL disability is people who could finish activities of daily living without any difficulties
  3. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001