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Table 3 Summary of papers included: Qualitative studies

From: Support for people who use Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: A Systematic Scoping Review into what they want and what they access

First author, year & reference Country Participants defined, (age range/mean), gender No. of participants Type of data # Sources potential bias & limitations Quality review~
Maycock (2005) [36] Australia Used or had used AAS and dealers, men 42 AAS users, 22 dealers #Qualitative: Participant observation (147), interviews include longitudinal (10 over 3 years) Purposive sampling **
Grogan (2006) [37] UK Use(d) AAS, 5 men, 6 women 11 #Qualitative: interviews Small sample ***
Skårberg (2008) [38] Sweden Addiction clinic patients who use(d) AAS, 4 men, 2 women 6 Qualitative interviews: case-study Sought help for AAS use. Small sample **
Kimergård (2014) [39] England & Wales AAS users and harm reduction service providers (mean = 34), men 24 Qualitative: semi-structured interviews Bias towards those showing positive health behaviours ***
Kimergård (2014) [3] England & Wales Used or had used AAS, men 24 #Qualitative: semi-structured interviews same study as above ***
Kimergård (2015) [22] England & Wales AAS users, men 24 #Qualitative: semi-structured interviews same study as above ***
Van Hout (2015) [40] UK IPED users, men 20 #Qualitative: in-depth interviews Privileged access recruitment^ ***
Dunn (2016) [41] Australia Used or had used AAS, 19 men and 2 women 21 #Qualitative: semi-structured interviews Voucher for taking part; one region (non-rural), length of interviews varied ***
Griffiths (2016) [42] Australia Used or had used AAS, 24 men 2 women 26 #Qualitative: semi-structured interviews – same study as above ***
Hanley Santos (2017) [43] UK AAS users, 21 men 1 woman 22 Qualitative: semi-structured interviews Bias towards those showing positive health behaviours - £10 given ***
Tighe (2017) [44] Australia Specialist forum users, (none), unknown 450 unique avatars Qualitative: threads from 3 Online forums: 134 threads: 1716 posts Australian sites yet people from other countries on forums ***
Greenway (2018) [45] UK AAS Users, male 8 Qualitative: interviews Sample bias, one NSP ***
  1. ~ Quality Review: Qualitative studies: CASP Checklist for Qualitative Research [34] was used: *** 90% boxes checked as yes, evident, ** if equal to or greater than 70% checked. ^The authors acknowledged that one interviewer had privileged access, here that is likely to be an insider within this sub-community [49] #where practicable data analysed from studies which included dealers or professional services providers, only findings from AAS users have been included