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Table 1 Characteristics of households, mothers and children at baseline and endline

From: Effects of participatory learning and action with women’s groups, counselling through home visits and crèches on undernutrition among children under three years in eastern India: a quasi-experimental study

  Area 1: Control Area 2: PLA and home visits Area 3: Crèches, PLA and home visits p value for differences between areas baseline p value for differences between areas at endline
  Baseline Endline Baseline Endline Baseline Endline   
N = 1263 N = 1130 N = 1245 N = 1256 N = 1360 N = 1177   
Household characteristics, n (%)
 Household owns agricultural land 987 (78.2) 912 (80.7) 1117 (89.7) 1112 (88.5) 1271 (93.4) 1077 (91.5) < 0.001 < 0.001
Household wealth quintile, n (%)
  Richest 295 (23.4) 281 (24.9) 213 (17.1) 286 (22.8) 226 (16.6) 181 (15.4) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Second richest 203 (16.1) 221 (19.6) 253 (20.3) 270 (21.5) 270 (19.9) 255 (21.7)   
  Middle 197 (15.6) 204 (18.1) 251 (20.2) 277 (22.1) 255 (18.8) 304 (25.8)   
  Second poorest 249 (19.7) 143 (12.7) 232 (18.6) 219 (17.4) 281 (20.7) 248 (21.1)   
  Poorest 319 (25.3) 281 (24.9) 296 (23.8) 204 (16.4) 328 (24.1) 189 (16.1)   
 Has improved source of drinking water, n (%) a 906 (71.7) 849 (75.1) 918 (73.7) 911 (72.5) 968 (71.2) 863 (73.3) 0.316 0.341
Main source of family’s staple food, n (%)
  Own production 820 (64.9) 532 (47.1) 884 (71.0) 730 (58.1) 908 (66.8) 714 (60.7) 0.001 < 0.001
  Purchased from regular shop 368 (29.1) 420 (37.2) 301 (24.2) 420 (33.4) 352 (25.9) 321 (27.3)   
  Purchased from ration shop 73 (5.8) 174 (15.3) 53 (4.3) 95 (7.6) 95 (7.6) 137 (11.6)   
  Borrowed, bartered, exchanged 2 (0.2) 4 (0.3) 7 (0.6) 11 (0.9) 4 (0.3) 5 (0.4)   
 Household has a MNREGAb job card 687 (54.4) 539 (47.7) 800 (64.3) 755 (60.1) 972 (71.5) 756 (64.2) < 0.001 < 0.001
Maternal characteristics
Tribe or Caste, n (%)
  Scheduled Tribe 774 (61.3) 757 (67.0) 857 (68.8) 942 (75.1) 1128 (82.9) 978 (83.1) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Scheduled Caste 57 (4.5) 33 (2.9) 34 (2.7) 21 (1.7) 62 (4.5) 37 (3.1)   
  Other Backward Caste 407 (32.2) 322 (28.5) 337 (27.1) 291 (23.2) 161 (11.8) 159 (13.5)   
  None of the above 25 (2.0) 18 (1.6) 17 (1.4) 1 (0.1) 9 (0.7) 3 (0.3)   
 Mother has ever been to school 722 (57.2) 684 (60.5) 672 (54.0) 683 (54.4) 736 (54.1) 593 (50.4) 0.188 < 0.001
Child characteristics
 Age in months, mean (SD) 20.0 (9.2) 19.0 (9.3) 20.0 (9.8) 18.4 (9.2) 19.0 (9.5) 18.9 (9.4) 0.017 0.242
Sex, n (%)
  Female 615 (45.2) 579 (49.2) 608 (48.8) 607 (48.3) 615 (48.7) 533 (47.2)   
  Male 745 (54.8) 598 (50.8) 637 (51.2) 597 (52.8) 648 (51.3) 597 (52.8) 0.108 0.621
  1. a Tubewell or handpump
  2. b Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act