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Table 2 Prevalence of folic acid and iron salt use by pregnant women in the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort perinatal study, crude and adjusted prevalence ratios and respective confidence intervals (95% CI) (N = 4270 women)

From: The use of folic acid, iron salts and other vitamins by pregnant women in the 2015 Pelotas birth cohort: is there socioeconomic inequality?

  Iron salts Folic acid
Crude analysis Adjusted analysisa Crude analysis Adjusted analysisa
  95% CI   95% CI   95% CI   95% CI
P (%) PR (p value) PR (p value) P (%) PR (p value) PR (p value)
Ethnicity (< 0.001)   (< 0.001)    (< 0.001)   (0.03)
 White 68.2 1   1   73.4 1   1  
 Other 85.8 1.25 1.20–1.31 1.11 1.07–1.16 66.6 0.90 0.85–0.96 0.97 0.91–1.03
 Black 82.8 1.21 1.15–1.27 1.08 1.03–1.13 62.4 0.85 0.79–0.91 0.91 0.85–0.98
Education (years) < 0.001   < 0.001    (< 0.001)   (< 0.001)c
  ≤ 4 years 90.6 1.72 1.61–1.83 1.46 1.36–1.56 58.6 0.71 0.65–0.79 0.78 0.71–0.86
 5–8 87.4 1.66 1.56–1.75 1.45 1.35–1.53 62.7 0.77 0.72–0.81 0.82 0.77–0.87
 9–11 77.3 1.46 1.38–1.56 1.31 1.23–1.40 69.9 0.86 0.82–0.89 0.88 0.84–0.93
  ≥ 12 52.6 1   1   81.3 1   1  
Family Income b (< 0.001)   (< 0.001)    (< 0.001)   (0.02) c
  ≤ 1 86.4 1.93 1.68–2.23 1.39 1.20–1.61 57.9 0.68 0.61–0.74 0.82 0.74–0.90
 1.1–3.0 80.7 1.81 1.57–2.07 1.39 1.20–1.59 68.3 0.80 0.75–0.85 0.91 0.85–0,97
 3.1–6.0 67.3 1.50 1.30–1.74 1.28 1.11–1.48 75.8 0.88 0.83–0.94 0.95 0.89–1.01
 6.1–10.0 48.8 1.10 0.91–1.31 1.06 0.89–1.26 77.6 0.90 0.84–0.98 0.92 0.85–1.00
  > 10.0 44.6 1   1   85.3 1   1  
  1. a Model adjusted for ethnicity, family income and years of education
  2. b Monthly minimum wage in 2015 (R$788 or $201)
  3. c p-value: χ2 test for trend
  4. Pelotas, RS, Brazil, 2015