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Table 2 Age adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRR) bias for the four models. All results are the mean taken over the 10 000 simulations

From: Bias in cohort-based comparisons of immigrants’ health outcomes between countries: a simulation study

Model Observed deaths* (% of all obs.) Observed RM* Censored observations* MRR Bias (SD)
a. unadj., b. adj.**
Model 1
  3 458 (17%) 16 621 a. 1.063 (0.009)
2 829 (17%) 13 024 b. 1.000 (0.008)
Model 2
  3 348 (15%) 892 15 838 a. 0.944 (0.007)
2 725 (17%) 892 15 156 b. 0.995 (0.008)
Model 3
  3 383 (17%) 464 16 233 a. 1.085 (0.011)
2 829 (17%) 464 12 197 b. 0.977 (0.010)
Model 4
  2 888 (12%) 1 240 15 950 a. 0.915 (0.013)
1 814 (14%) 1 240 11 900 b. 0.837 (0.011)
  1. *The values in italics are for the population with return migration observed
  2. **Adjusted for income and education level