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Table 1 Details of risk of bias of included studies using ROBINS-I

From: The effectiveness of financial intervention strategies for reducing caesarean section rates: a systematic review

Author, year Study design Confounders Selection of participant Classification of intervention Departure from intended interventions Missing data Measurement of outcomes Selective reporting Overall risk
Keeler and Fok, 1996 [29] Interrupted time series Moderate risk of bias Low risk of bias Serious risk of bias No information Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Serious risk of bias
Lo, 2008 [30] Interrupted time series Moderate risk of bias Low risk of bias Low risk of bias No information Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Moderate risk of bias
Misra, 2008 [31] Cohort (one group pre + post (before and after) Moderate risk of bias Low risk of bias Low risk of bias No information Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Moderate risk of bias
Hong and Linn, 2012 [32] Interrupted time series Moderate risk of bias Serious risk of bias Low risk of bias No information Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Serious risk of bias
Liu et al., 2013 [33] Interrupted time series Critical risk of bias Serious risk of bias Low risk of bias No information Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Critical risk of bias
Chen et al., 2014 [34] Interrupted time series Moderate risk of bias Low risk of bias Low risk of bias No information Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Moderate risk of bias
Kim et al., 2016 [35] Cohort (one group pre + post (before and after) Moderate risk of bias Low risk of bias Low risk of bias No information Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Moderate risk of bias
Liu et al., 2018 [36] Cohort (one group pre + post (before and after) Moderate risk of bias Low risk of bias Serious risk of bias No information Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Serious risk of bias
Kozhimannil, 2018 [37] Cohort analytic (two group pre + post) Moderate risk of bias Low risk of bias Low risk of bias No information Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Low risk of bias Moderate risk of bias