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Table 5 Determinants of catastrophic expenses among parturient women surveyed, Lubumbashi, DRC, 2015

From: Incidence of catastrophic expenditures linked to obstetric and neonatal care at 92 facilities in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2015

Variables [n = 1627; CE = 261]
aOR 95% CI p
Sectora&b    0.65
 Public vs private religious 1.3 0.6–2.6  
 Parastatal entity vs private religious 1.3 0.5–3.8  
 Private non-religious vs private religious 1.5 0.7–3.2  
Not married vs marrieda&b 1.6 0.7–3.4 0.24
Socioeconomic levela&b    < 0.001
 Q1 vs Q5 38.7 17.6–85.2  
 Q2 vs Q5 23.5 10.7–51.8  
 Q3 vs Q5 1.6 0.6–4.2  
 Q4 vs Q5 1.3 0.5–3.6  
Referred vs not referreda 1.9 1.1–3.6 < 0.001
Type of deliverya    < 0.001
 Complicated vaginal vs uncomplicated 1.9 1.2–2.9  
 Caesarean vs uncomplicated 7.5 3.6–15.4  
Obstetric complicationsb    < 0.001
 Infections vs none 20.8 7.4–58.0  
 Pre & post-partum hemorrhage vs none 9.4 5.0–17.7  
 Eclampsia vs none 4.7 1.5–15.0  
 Placenta Prævia vs none 5.6 1.5–21.0  
 Soft-tissue tears vs none 4.2 2.5–7.1  
 Placental abruption vs none 2.4 1.2–9.5  
 Obstructed labor vs none 4.8 2.8–8.2  
Newborn carea    < 0.001
 Emergency vs basic 2.8 1.4–5.4  
 Intensive vs basic 2.9 1.9–4.3  
Skilled birth attendant at deliverya    < 0.001
 Generalist physician vs midwives 2.2 0.9–5.1  
 Specialist physician vs midwives 3.9 1.8–8.5  
Length of stay (days)b    < 0.001
 3–14 1.3 0.9–1.9  
  ≥ 15 3.6 1.5–8.1  
  1. aincluded only in model 1, built on the basis of care received by women and newborns; bincluded only in model 2, built on the basis of complications requiring obstetric and neonatal care; a & bincluded in both models