Skip to main content

Table 4 Incidence of catastrophic expenses (CE) by sociodemographic and economic characteristics of women, evolution of the delivery and length of stay in the maternity unit, Lubumbashi, DRC, 2015

From: Incidence of catastrophic expenditures linked to obstetric and neonatal care at 92 facilities in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2015

Variables Total Incidence of CE (%) RR 95% CI p
Age (years)      0.10
  < 20 172 20.4 1.6 0.9–2.5  
 20–34 1215 16.1 1.3 0.9–1.9  
  ≥ 35 240 12.5 1   
Marital status      < 0.001
 Married 1589 15.5 1   
 Not married 38 36.8 2.4 1.5–3.5  
Partner’s age (years)      0.39
  < 25 114 14.9 0.8 0.4–1.4  
 25–34 784 16.7 0.9 0.6–1.3  
 35–44 589 15.3 0.8 0.5–1.2  
  ≥ 45 115 19.1 1   
 Unknown 25 4.0 0.2 0.1–1.1  
Wealth quintile      < 0.001*
 Q1 (very poor) 302 44.7 22.5 11.0–46.8  
 Q2 317 31.6 15.9 7.7–33.3  
 Q3 311 3.2 1.6 0.7–4.1  
 Q4 344 2.6 1.3 0.5–3.4  
 Q5 (very rich) 353 2.0 1   
Referral status      < 0.001
 Referred 114 40.4 2.8 2.2–3.6  
 Not referred 1513 14.2 1   
Complications      < 0.001
 Post-partum infection 50 58.0 9.1 6.4–12.5  
 Pre & post-partum hemorrhage 86 41.9 6.5 4.6–9.1  
 Eclampsia 27 40.7 6.4 3.6–10.1  
 Placenta Prævia 22 31.8 5.0 2.5–8.8  
 Soft-tissue tears 214 25.7 4.0 2.9–5.6  
 Placental abruption 20 25.0 3.9 1.7–7.7  
 Obstructed labor 240 23.3 3.6 2.6–5.1  
 None 968 6.4 1   
Type of delivery      < 0.001
 Uncomplicated vaginal 1001 9.5 1   
 Complicated vaginal 429 17.0 1.8 1.4–2.4  
 Caesarean 197 47.2 5.0 3.9–6.3  
Neonatal care      < 0.001
 Basic 971 9.1 1   
 Emergency 163 39.9 4.4 3.3–5.8  
 Intensive 493 21.9 2.4 1.9–3.1  
Type of skilled birth attendant      < 0.001
 Nurses and midwives 1446 14.0 1   
 General physician 97 29.9 2.1 1.5–2.9  
 Specialist physician 84 35.7 2.6 1.8–3.4  
Delivery facility      0.03
 Planned 1287 15.0 1   
 Not planned 340 20.0 1.3 1.1–1.7  
Length of stay (days)      < 0.001
  ≤ 3 1143 12.4 1   
 4–14 419 19.8 1.6 1.2–2.0  
  ≥ 15 65 55.4 4.5 3.4–5.7  
  1. *Chi-squared test for trend