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Table 6 Cox proportional hazard models for all-cause mortality and loss to follow-up for all patients with an outcome assigned (n = 173,055a)

From: Treatment outcomes among children, adolescents, and adults on treatment for tuberculosis in two metropolitan municipalities in Gauteng Province, South Africa

Characteristics Proportion with outcome
[Death]
Crude HR and 95% CI Adjusted HR and 95% CI Proportion with outcome
[LTFU]
Crude HR and 95% CI Adjusted HR and 95% CI Adjusted
sub-HRb and 95% CI
Age at start of treatment <10 (children) 209 (1.19%) 0.20 (0.18–0.23) 0.23 (0.20–0.26) 640 (3.64%) 0.60 (0.55–0.65) 0.63 (0.58–0.69) 0.64 (0.59–0.71)
10–14 (young adolescents) 53 (2.71%) 0.45 (0.34–0.59) 0.48 (0.37–0.63) 60 (3.07%) 0.48 (0.38–0.62) 0.52 (0.40–0.67) 0.53 (0.41–0.69)
15–19 (older adolescents) 110 (2.94%) 0.50 (0.42–0.61) 0.62 (0.52–0.75) 224 (5.99%) 0.98 (0.85–1.11) 1.05 (0.92–1.20) 1.07 (0.93–1.22)
20–24 (young adults) 392 (3.60%) 0.62 (0.56–0.69) 0.72 (0.64–0.79) 896 (8.22%) 1.36 (1.27–1.46) 1.44 (1.34–1.54) 1.45 (1.35–1.55)
25–49 (adults) 6745 (5.80%) 1.00 1.00 7082 (6.09%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
≥50 (older adults) 2447 (10.84%) 1.92 (1.83–2.01) 2.12 (2.02–2.22) 1155 (5.11%) 0.87 (0.81–0.92) 0.85 (0.80–0.91) 0.82 (0.77–0.87)
Registration year 2010 1858 (6.49%) 1.02 (0.95–1.09) 0.99 (0.93–1.06) 1855 (6.18%) 1.12 (1.05–1.19) 1.04 (0.98–1.11) 1.04 (0.98–1.12)
2011 1835 (6.07%) 1.00 1.00 1667 (5.52%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
2012 1607 (5.50%) 0.91 (0.85–0.97) 0.91 (0.86–0.98) 1683 (5.76%) 1.05 (0.98–1.12) 1.08 (1.01–1.16) 1.08 (1.01–1.16)
2013 1655 (5.65%) 0.94 (0.88–1.00) 0.96 (0.89–1.02) 1743 (5.95%) 1.09 (1.02–1.16) 1.18 (1.10–1.26) 1.17 (1.10–1.26)
2014 1550 (5.50%) 0.92 (0.86–0.98) 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 1604 (5.70%) 1.05 (0.98–1.13) 1.20 (1.11–1.29) 1.19 (1.11–1.29)
2015 1451 (5.55%) 0.93 (0.87–0.99) 1.05 (0.96–1.15) 1505 (5.76%) 1.06 (0.99–1.14) 1.23 (1.13–1.34) 1.23 (1.12–1.34)
Sex Female 4521 (5.82%) 1.01 (0.97–1.05) 1.04 (1.00–1.08) 3913 (5.03%) 0.77 (0.74–0.81) 0.77 (0.74–0.81) 0.77 (0.74–0.81)
  Male 5435 (5.70%) 1.00 1.00 6144 (6.45%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Case definitionc Bacteriologically confirmed 6588 (5.52%) 1.00 1.00 7162 (6.00%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Clinically diagnosed 1711 (6.08%) 1.08 (1.03–1.14) 1.34 (1.27–1.42) 1515 (5.38%) 0.88 (0.83–0.93) 1.01 (0.95–1.07) 1.00 (0.94–1.06)
  Missing/unknown 1657 (6.48%) 1.15 (1.09–1.21) 1.49 (1.41–1.58) 1380 (5.40%) 0.87 (0.82–0.92) 1.02 (0.96–1.09) 1.01 (0.95–1.07)
Patient category New Patient 9162 (5.61%) 1.00 1.00 9073 (5.56%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Previously treated 515 (7.47%) 1.27 (1.16–1.39) 1.20 (1.10–1.32) 705 (10.22%) 0.72 (1.59–1.85) 1.70 (1.57–1.84) 1.71 (1.58–1.85)
Unknown TB treatment history 279 (9.53%) 1.62 (1.44–1.83) 1.40 (1.24–1.57) 279 (9.53%) 1.60 (1.42–1.80) 1.62 (1.43–1.82) 1.61 (1.42–1.81)
Classification of Disease Pulmonary TB 7615 (5.26%) 1.00 1.00 8259 (5.71%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
EPTB 2341 (8.26%) 1.46 (1.40–1.53) 1.19 (1.13–1.25) 1798 (6.34%) 1.00 (0.95–1.05) 1.00 (0.94–1.05) 1.00 (0.94–1.06)
HIV status Positive on ART 4074 (5.98%) 2.01 (1.89–2.15) 1.66 (1.56–1.78) 3452 (5.07%) 1.00 (0.94–1.05) 0.91 (0.86–0.96) 0.80 (0.85–0.95)
Positive not on ART 2277 (8.24%) 2.86 (2.67–3.07) 2.50 (2.32–2.69) 2156 (7.80%) 1.59 (1.49–1.69) 1.57 (1.47–1.67) 1.51 (1.42–1.62)
Positive ART status unknown 1247 (7.80%) 2.65 (2.45–2.87) 2.36 (2.17–2.57) 954 (5.97%) 1.18 (1.10–1.28) 1.21 (1.12–1.31) 1.18 (1.09–1.28)
Negative 1162 (2.96%) 1.00 1.00 1983 (5.05%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
HIV status unknown 1196 (5.42%) 1.85 (1.71–2.01) 1.79 (1.62–1.91) 1512 (6.85%) 1.37 (1.28–1.47) 1.42 (1.33–1.53) 1.40 (1.30–1.50)
Treatment supervision (Intensive Phase) Yes 1518 (5.49%) 1.00 1.00 1516 (5.48%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
No 7139 (5.87%) 1.09 (1.03–1.15) 0.80 (0.76–0.85) 7124 (5.86%) 1.10 (1.04–1.16) 0.80 (0.76–0.85) 0.81 (0.76–0.86)
Missing 1299 (5.45%) 1.01 (0.94–1.09) 6.45 (5.08–8.19) 1417 (5.95%) 1.12 (1.04–1.20) 11.17 (8.33–14.99) 10.69 (7.97–14.34)
Treatment supervision (Continuation Phase) Yes 77 (0.99%) 1.00 1.00 48 (0.63%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
No 8581 (6.06%) 6.66 (5.31–8.35) 8.03 (6.37–10.12) 8592 (6.07%) 10.75 (8.10–14.28) 12.98 (9.73–17.31) 12.36 (9.26–16.48)
Missing 1299 (5.45%) 5.99 (4.75–7.55) (omitted) 1417 (5.95%) 10.54 (7.91–14.06) (omitted) (omitted)
Overall   9956 (5.75%) 10057 (5.81%)  
  1. EPTB extra-pulmonary tuberculosis
  2. aSample excludes patients with no available outcome (i.e. transferred out, outcome not assigned)
  3. bSub-distribution hazard ratios from competing risk regression model proposed by Fine and Gray where death is considered a competing risk
  4. cBacteriologically confirmed includes Xpert MTB/RIF, smear, or culture (and if aspiration/biopsy or cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) was listed, although the corresponding laboratory method was unknown). Clinically diagnosed includes X-ray and tuberculin skin test