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Table 4 Cox proportional hazard models for all-cause mortality and loss to follow-up (n = 170,017a)

From: Treatment outcomes among children, adolescents, and adults on treatment for tuberculosis in two metropolitan municipalities in Gauteng Province, South Africa

Characteristics Proportion with outcome [Death] Crude HR and 95% CI Adjusted HR and 95% CI Proportion with outcome [LTFU] Crude HR and 95% CI Adjusted HR and 95% CI Adjusted sub-HRb and 95% CI
Age at start of treatment (years) <10 (children) 209 (1.20%) 0.20 (0.18–0.23) 0.23 (0.20–0.26) 631 (3.63%) 0.59 (0.54–0.64) 0.62 (0.56–0.68) 0.64 (0.58–0.70)
10–14 (young adolescents) 52 (2.72%) 0.45 (0.34–0.59) 0.48 (0.37–0.63) 60 (3.14%) 0.49 (0.38–0.63) 0.53 (0.41–0.68) 0.54 (0.42–0.69)
15–19 (older adolescents) 109 (2.96%) 0.50 (0.41–0.60) 0.62 (0.51–0.75) 224 (6.09%) 0.98 (0.86–1.12) 1.05 (0.92–1.21) 1.07 (0.93–1.22)
20–24 (young adults) 389 (3.62%) 0.62 (0.56–0.68) 0.71 (0.64–0.78) 890 (8.29%) 1.35 (1.26–1.45) 1.43 (1.33–1.54) 1.44 (1.34–1.55)
25–49 (adults) 6713 (5.88%) 1.00 1.00 7046 (6.17%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
≥50 (older adults) 2437 (11.00%) 1.92 (1.84–2.02) 2.13 (2.03–2.23) 1150 (5.19%) 0.87 (0.82–0.92) 0.85 (0.80–0.91) 0.82 (0.77–0.87)
Registration year 2010 1846 (6.26%) 1.01 (0.95–1.08) 0.98 (0.92–1.05) 1844 (6.25%) 1.12 (1.04–1.19) 1.04 (0.97–1.11) 1.04 (0.97–1.12)
2011 1832 (6.17%) 1.00 1.00 1660 (5.59%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
2012 1602 (5.57%) 0.91 (0.85–0.97) 0.91 (0.85–0.98) 1670 (5.81%) 1.05 (0.98–1.12) 1.08 (1.01–1.16) 1.08 (1.01–1.16)
2013 1644 (5.71%) 0.93 (0.87–1.00) 0.96 (0.90–1.03) 1730 (6.01%) 1.09 (1.02–1.16) 1.18 (1.10–1.30) 1.18 (1.10–1.27)
2014 1540 (5.57%) 0.92 (0.86–0.98) 0.99 (0.92–1.07) 1595 (5.77%) 1.05 (0.98–1.13) 1.21 (1.12–1.30) 1.20 (1.11–1.30)
2015 1445 (5.63%) 0.93 (0.86–0.99) 1.05 (0.96–1.15) 1502 (5.86%) 1.07 (1.00–1.14) 1.24 (1.13–1.35) 1.23 (1.12–1.34)
Sex Female 4503 (5.89%) 1.01 (0.97–1.05) 1.04 (1.00–1.08) 3894 (5.10%) 0.77 (0.74–0.81) 0.77 (0.74–0.81) 0.77 (0.74–0.80)
  Male 5406 (5.77%) 1.00 1.00 6107 (6.52%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Case definitionc Bacteriologically confirmed 6556 (5.57%) 1.00 1.00 7130 (6.06%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Clinically diagnosed 1704 (6.19%) 1.09 (1.04–1.15) 1.36 (1.28–1.43) 1508 (5.47%) 0.88 (0.84–0.93) 1.02 (0.97–1.09) 1.01 (0.95–1.07)
  Missing/unknown 1649 (6.64%) 1.17 (1.11–1.24) 1.52 (1.44–1.61) 1363 (5.49%) 0.89 (0.84–0.94) 1.04 (0.98–1.11) 1.02 (0.96–1.09)
Patient category New Patient 9118 (5.68%) 1.00 1.00 9022 (5.62%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Previously treated 513 (7.69%) 1.30 (1.19–1.42) 1.23 (1.13–1.35) 701 (10.51%) 1.75 (1.62–1.89) 1.74 (1.61–1.88) 1.74 (1.61–1.88)
Unknown TB treatment history 278 (9.80%) 1.64 (1.46–1.85) 1.42 (1.26–1.60) 278 (9.80%) 1.62 (1.44–1.83) 1.64 (1.45–1.85) 1.62 (1.44–1.83)
Classification of Disease Pulmonary TB 7585 (5.31%) 1.00 1.00 8215 (5.75%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
EPTB 2324 (8.55%) 1.51 (1.44–1.58) 1.22 (1.16–1.28) 1786 (6.57%) 1.03 (0.97–1.08) 1.02 (0.97–1.08) 1.02 (0.97–1.08)
HIV status Positive on ART 4056 (6.07%) 2.03 (1.90–2.17) 1.67 (1.58–1.78) 3435 (5.14%) 1.00 (0.95–1.06) 0.91 (0.86–0.96) 0.90 (0.85–0.95)
Positive not on ART 2267 (8.35%) 2.88 (2.68–3.09) 2.51 (2.33–2.70) 2416 (7.90%) 1.59 (1.50–1.69) 1.57 (1.47–1.68) 1.52 (1.42–1.62)
Positive ART status unknown 1243 (7.98%) 2.70 (2.50–2.93) 2.40 (2.21–2.61) 951 (6.10%) 1.21 (1.12–1.30) 1.23 (1.13–1.34) 1.19 (1.10–1.29)
Negative 1155 (2.99%) 1.00 1.00 1971 (5.09%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
HIV status unknown 1188 (5.47%) 1.86 (1.72–2.02) 1.77 (1.62–1.92) 1498 (6.90%) 1.37 (1.28–1.47) 1.43 (1.33–1.53) 1.40 (1.31–1.51)
Treatment supervision (Intensive Phase) Yes 1514 (5.65%) 1.00 1.00 1509 (5.63%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
No 7103 (5.92%) 1.06 (1.01–1.13) 0.78 (0.74–0.83) 7084 (5.91%) 1.07 (1.01–1.13) 0.79 (0.74–0.83) 0.80 (0.75–0.84)
Missing 1292 (5.55%) 1.00 (0.93–1.08) 6.24 (4.91–7.92) 1408 (6.04%) 1.11 (1.03–1.19) 10.74 (8.00–14.40) 10.40 (7.75–13.95)
Treatment supervision (Continuation Phase) Yes 76 (1.04%) 1.00 1.00 48 (0.66%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
No 8541 (6.13%) 6.41 (5.11–8.03) 7.81 (6.20–9.84) 8545 (6.13%) 10.36 (7.78–13.73) 12.56 (9.42–14.40) 12.03 (9.02–16.04)
Missing 1292 (5.55%) 5.83 (4.62–7.34) (omitted) 1408 (6.04%) 10.26 (7.69–13.68) (omitted) (omitted)
Overall   9909 (5.83%) 10001 (5.88%)  
  1. EPTB extra-pulmonary tuberculosis
  2. aSample excludes patients still on treatment at ≥10 months and patients with no available outcome (i.e. outcome not assigned)
  3. bSub-distribution hazard ratios from competing risk regression model proposed by Fine and Gray where death is considered a competing risk
  4. cBacteriologically confirmed includes Xpert MTB/RIF, smear, or culture (and if aspiration/biopsy or cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) was listed, although the corresponding laboratory method was unknown). Clinically diagnosed includes X-ray and tuberculin skin test