Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of cases treated for TB disease by age group (n = 182,890)

From: Treatment outcomes among children, adolescents, and adults on treatment for tuberculosis in two metropolitan municipalities in Gauteng Province, South Africa

Characteristics All
N = 182890
Children
(<10 years)
N = 18259
Young Adolescents
(10–14 years)
N = 2032
Older Adolescents
(15–19 years)
N = 3931
Young Adults
(20–24 years)
N = 11686
Adults
(25–49 years)
N = 123363
Older Adults
(≥50 years)
N = 23619
District in Gauteng Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality 64304 (35.16%) 6110 (33.46%) 832 (40.94%) 1585 (40.32%) 4310 (36.88%) 42575 (34.51%) 8892 (37.65%)
  City of Johannesburg 118586 (64.85%) 12149 (66.54%) 1200 (59.06%) 2346 (59.68%) 7376 (63.12%) 80788 (65.49%) 14727 (62.35%)
Registration year 2010 32704 (17.88%) 3126 (17.12%) 367 (18.06%) 726 (18.47%) 2322 (19.87%) 23333 (18.10%) 3830 (16.22%)
2011 31999 (17.50%) 3460 (18.95%) 393 (19.34%) 676 (17.20%) 2108 (18.04%) 21508 (17.43%) 3854 (16.32%)
2012 30844 (16.86%) 3258 (17.84%) 400 (19.69%) 672 (17.09%) 1927 (16.49%) 20822 (16.88%) 3765 (15.94%)
2013 30872 (16.88%) 3302 (18.08%) 310 (15.26%) 659 (16.76%) 1891 (16.18%) 20608 (16.71%) 4102 (17.37%)
2014 29506 (16.13%) 2585 (14.16%) 264 (12.99%) 597 (15.19%) 1857 (15.89%) 20065 (16.27%) 4138 (17.52%)
2015 26965 (14.74%) 2528 (13.85%) 298 (14.67%) 601 (15.29%) 1581 (13.53%) 18027 (14.61%) 3930 (16.64%)
Sex Female 82341 (45.02%) 8875 (48.61%) 1069 (52.61%) 2379 (60.52%) 7070 (60.50%) 54312 (44.03%) 8636 (36.56%)
Case definitiona Bacteriologically confirmed 126360 (69.09%) 1265 (6.93%) 1130 (55.61%) 3086 (78.50%) 9247 (79.13%) 94042 (76.23%) 17590 (74.47%)
Clinically diagnosed 29658 (16.22%) 9309 (50.98%) 467 (22.98%) 418 (10.63%) 1224 (10.47%) 15126 (12.26%) 3114 (13.18%)
  Missing/Unknown 26872 (14.69%) 7685 (42.09%) 435 (21.41%) 427 (10.86%) 1215 (10.40%) 14195 (11.51%) 2915 (12.34%)
Full case definition Xpert MTB/RIF 28482 (15.57%) 239 (1.31%) 188 (9.25%) 694 (17.65%) 1929 (16.51%) 20959 (16.99%) 4473 (18.94%)
  Smear microscopy 87192 (47.67%) 763 (4.18%) 810 (39.86%) 2195 (55.84%) 6642 (56.84%) 65102 (52.77%) 11680 (49.45%)
  Culture 5638 (3.08%) 45 (0.25%) 53 (2.61%) 97 (2.47%) 356 (3.05%) 4282 (3.47%) 805 (3.41%)
  Aspiration/biopsy, lab method unknown 3923 (2.15%) 146 (0.80%) 60 (2.95%) 80 (2.04%) 251 (2.15%) 2901 (2.35%) 485 (2.05%)
  CSF, lab method unknown 1125 (0.62%) 72 (0.39%) 19 (0.94%) 20 (0.51%) 69 (0.59%) 798 (0.65%) 147 (0.62%)
  X-ray 23720 (12.97%) 3600 (19.72%) 398 (19.59%) 411 (10.46%) 1213 (10.38%) 15033 (12.16%) 3095 (13.10%)
  Tuberculin skin test (TST) 5938 (3.25%) 5709 (31.27%) 69 (3.40%) 7 (0.18%) 11 (0.09%) 123 (0.10%) 19 (0.08%)
  Missing/Unknown 26872 (14.69%) 7685 (42.09%) 435 (21.41%) 427 (10.86%) 1215 (10.40%) 14195 (11.51%) 2915 (12.34%)
Cases diagnosed with Xpert MTB/RIF by year 2010 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
2011 8 (0.03%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (0.05%) 7 (0.03%) 0 (0.00%)
2012 366 (1.19%) 2 (0.06%) 1 (0.25%) 7 (1.045) 22 (1.14%) 291 (1.40%) 43 (1.14%)
2013 2136 (6.92%) 11 (0.335) 8 (2.58%) 49 (7.44%) 130 (6.87%) 1603 (7.78%) 335 (8.17%)
2014 8992 (30.48%) 81 (3.13%) 56 (21.21%) 213 (35.68%) 629 (33.87%) 6618 (32.98%) 1395 (33.71%)
2015 16980 (62.97%) 145 (5.74%) 123 (41.28%) 425 (70.72%) 1147 (72.55%) 12440 (69.01%) 2700 (68.70%)
Patient category New Patient 172252 (94.18%) 18058 (98.90%) 1957 (96.31%) 3776 (96.06%) 11125 (95.20%) 115272 (93.42%) 22064 (93.42%)
Previously treated 7459 159 47 113 435 5650 1055
   Relapse 5227 (2.86%) 113 (0.62%) 32 (1.57%) 66 (1.68%) 233 (1.99%) 3993 (3.24%) 790 (3.34%)
   Re-treatment after failure 810 (0.44%) 14 (0.08%) 2 (0.10%) 18 (0.46%) 43 (0.37%) 612 (0.50%) 121 (0.51%)
   Re-treatment after LTFU 1422 (0.78%) 32 (0.18%) 13 (0.64%) 29 (0.74%) 159 (1.36%) 1045 (0.85%) 144 (0.61%)
Unknown previous TB treatment history 3179 (1.74%) 42 (0.23%) 28 (1.38%) 42 (1.07%) 126 (1.08%) 2441 (1.98%) 500 (2.12%)
Classification of Disease Pulmonary TB 15270 (83.50%) 17474 (95.70%) 1606 (79.04%) 3321 (84.48%) 9831 (84.13%) 100842 (81.74%) 19646 (83.18%)
EPTB 30170 (16.50%) 785 (4.30%) 426 (20.96%) 610 (15.52%) 1855 (15.87%) 22521 (18.26%) 3973 (16.82%)
Smear status at initiation Positive 68282 (37.34%) 301 (1.65%) 445 (21.90%) 2003 (50.95%) 5961 (51.01%) 50764 (41.15%) 8808 (37.29%)
Negative 43808 (23.95%) 612 (3.35%) 518 (25.49%) 798 (20.30%) 2429 (20.79%) 32827 (26.61%) 6624 (28.05%)
Missing 70800 (38.71%) 17346 (95.00%) 1069 (52.61%) 1130 (28.75%) 3296 (28.20%) 39772 (32.24%) 8187 (34.66%)
HIV status Total Positive 118326 3325 1000 1386 5711 93818 13086
   Positive, on ART 71421 (39.05%) 2016 (11.04%) 643 (31.64%) 853 (21.70%) 3084 (26.39%) 56637 (45.91%) 8188 (34.67%)
   Started prior to TB treatmentb 215 (0.63%) 1 (0.12%) 4 (1.39%) 3 (0.68%) 9 (0.62%) 161 (0.60%) 37 (0.88%)
   Started with/after TB treatmentb 631 (1.85%) 7 (0.83%) 1 (0.35%) 2 (0.46%) 28 (0.46%) 510 (1.89%) 83 (1.96%)
   Start date unknownb 33346 (97.53%) 837 (99.05%) 283 (98.26%) 433 (98.86%) 1409 (97.44%) 26276 (97.51%) 4108 (97.16%)
   Positive, not on ART 29757 (16.27%) 693 (3.80%) 187 (9.20%) 323 (8.22%) 1682 (14.39%) 23784 (19.28%) 3088 (13.07%)
   Positive, ART status unknown 17148 (9.38%) 616 (3.37%) 170 (8.37%) 210 (5.34%) 945 (8.09%) 13397 (10.86%) 1810 (7.66%)
Negative 40784 (22.30%) 10397 (56.94%) 668 (32.87%) 1859 (47.29%) 4283 (36.65%) 16468 (13.35%) 7109 (30.10%)
HIV status unknown 23780 (13.00%) 4537 (24.85%) 364 (17.91%) 686 (17.45%) 1692 (14.48%) 13077 (10.60%) 3424 (14.50%)
CD4 count (cells/mm3)c ≤100 26013 (21.98%) 279 (8.39%) 155 (15.50%) 247 (17.82%) 1056 (18.49%) 21790 (23.23%) 2486 (19.00%)
101–250 20433 (17.27%) 282 (8.48%) 112 (11.20%) 219 (15.80%) 1035 (18.12%) 16615 (17.71%) 2170 (16.58%)
251–350 6685 (5.65%) 109 (3.28%) 67 (6.70%) 87 (6.28%) 407 (7.13%) 5285 (5.63%) 730 (5.58%)
351–500 4877 (4.12%) 129 (3.88%) 49 (4.90%) 61 (4.40%) 349 (6.11%) 3765 (4.01%) 524 (4.00%)
>500 3304 (2.79%) 256 (7.70%) 42 (4.20%) 59 (4.26%) 247 (4.32%) 2311 (2.46%) 389 (2.97%)
Missing 57014 (48.18%) 2270 (68.27%) 575 (57.50%) 713 (51.44%) 2617 (45.82%) 44052 (46.95%) 6787 (51.86%)
Median (IQR) 125 (51–248) 226 (90–494) 160 (42–328) 160 (54–300) 164 (69–306) 120 (50–237) 134 (59–259)
Started on cotrimoxazole prophylaxisc Yes 93554 (79.06%) 2452 (73.74%) 767 (76.70%) 1078 (77.78%) 4319 (75.63%) 74543 (79.45%) 10395 (79.44%)
No 14772 (12.48%) 468 (14.08%) 132 (13.20%) 184 (13.28%) 824 (14.43%) 11535 (12.30%) 1629 (12.45%)
Missing/unknown 10000 (8.45%) 405 (12.18%) 101 (10.10%) 124 (8.95%) 568 (9.95%) 7740 (8.25%) 1062 (8.12%)
Treatment regimen Regimen 1 (2 RHZE/4 RH) 157206 (85.96%) 2015 (11.04%) 1880 (92.52%) 3788 (96.36%) 11160 (95.50%) 116128 (94.14%) 22235 (94.14%)
Regimen 2 (2 RHZES/1 HRZE/5 HRE) 9364 (5.12%) 55 (0.30%) 68 (3.35%) 139 (3.54%) 523 (4.48%) 7198 (5.83%) 1381 (5.85%)
Regimen 3 (2 RHZE / 4 RH)d 16312 (8.92%) 16185 (88.64%) 83 (4.08%) 3 (0.08%) 3 (0.03%) 35 (0.03%) 3 (0.01%)
Other 8 (0.00%) 4 (0.02%) 1 (0.05%) 1 (0.03%) 0 2 (0.00%) 0
Treatment supervision (Intensive Phase) Yes 29170 (15.95%) 1708 (14.38%) 302 (14.86%) 622 (15.82%) 2012 (17.22%) 20277 (16.44%) 3249 (13.76%)
No 129116 (70.60%) 13478 (73.82%) 1457 (71.70%) 2740 (69.70%) 8143 (69.68%) 86550 (70.16%) 16748 (70.91%)
Missing 24604 (13.45%) 2073 (11.35%) 273 (13.44%) 569 (14.47%) 1531 (13.10%) 16536 (13.40%) 3622 (15.34%)
Treatment supervision (Continuation Phase) Yes 7722 (4.22%) 946 (5.18%) 104 (5.12%) 157 (3.99%) 511 (4.37%) 5211 (4.22%) 793 (3.36%)
No 150564 (82.32%) 15240 (83.47%) 1655 (81.45%) 3205 (81.53%) 9644 (82.53%) 101616 (82.37%) 19204 (81.31%)
Missing 24604 (13.45%) 2073 (11.35%) 273 (13.44%) 569 (14.47%) 1531 (13.10%) 16536 (13.40%) 3622 (15.34%)
Smear conversion at 2 monthse Yes 22476 (68.66%) 84 (64.12%) 163 (71.49%) 706 (68.08%) 2055 (70.09%) 16725 (68.91%) 2743 (66.27%)
No 10261 (31.34%) 47 (35.88%) 65 (28.51%) 331 (31.92%) 877 (29.91%) 7545 (31.09%) 1396 (33.73%)
N/A (Not smear positive at baseline or < 2 available smears) 150153 18128 1804 2894 8754 99093 19480
Any smear conversionf Yes 56628 (93.3%) 251 (92.62%) 393 (96.56%) 1728 (92.37%) 4918 (92.61% 42105 (93.36%) 7778 (92.99%
No 4069 (6.70%) 20 (7.38%) 14 (3.44%) 103 (5.63%) 391 (7.36%) 2996 (6.64%) 545 (7.01%)
N/A (Not smear positive at baseline or < 2 available smears) 122193 17988 1625 2100 6377 78262 15841
  1. Xpert MTB/RIF GeneXpert MTB/RIF, CSF cerebral spinal fluid, EPTB extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, LTFU loss to follow-up, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, ART antiretroviral therapy, IQR interquartile range, S streptomycin, R rifampicin, H isoniazid, Z pyrazinamide, E ethambutol
  2. aBacteriologically confirmed includes Xpert MTB/RIF, smear, or culture (and if aspiration/biopsy or cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) was listed, although the corresponding laboratory method was unknown). Clinically diagnosed includes X-ray and tuberculin skin test
  3. bART start date only reported for patients who initiated TB treatment in 2014 or 2015
  4. cReported for HIV positive patients only
  5. dRegimen 3, for children <8 years and <30 kg with complicated TB disease, is the same as Regimen 1 except that the dosage (mg/day) is reduced
  6. eSmear conversion at two months is two consecutive negative smears at least 30 days apart within two months of treatment initiation. One smear is sent monthly for smear microscopy
  7. fAny smear conversion is two consecutive negative smears at least 30 days apart at any time after treatment initiation. Ascertained at the end of treatment