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Table 2 Daily intake of fruit and vegetables (proportions) by socio-economic status and reported NCD morbidity

From: Low intake of commonly available fruits and vegetables in socio-economically disadvantaged communities of South Africa: influence of affordability and sugary drinks intake

Characteristics Consumed at least a portion of commonly available fruits and vegetables daily b
Yes No p-value*
N 202 333  
Socio-economic status (SES) n (%) n (%)  
Sex    
 Men 46 (22.8) 78 (23.4) 0.475
 Women 156 (77.2) 255 (76.6)
Overall 202 (37.8)a 333 (62.2) a  
Age (mean, SD) 51.1 (12.7) 48.8 (13.2) 0.055
Community
 Langa 1 (Urban, PURE cohort) c 79 (39.1) 149 (44.7) 0.442
 Langa 2 (Urban, non-PURE cohort) d 76 (37.6) 114 (34.3)
 Mt. Frere (Rural, PURE cohort) 3 47 (23.3) 70 (21.0)
Household monthly income
 < R2000 111 (55.0) 182 (54.7) 0.989
 R2000–5000 73 (36.1) 120 (36.0)
 R5001–15000 18 (8.9) 31 (9.3)
Own a Fridge (Yes) 50 (24.8) 68 (20.4) 0.144
Own a Car (Yes) 20 (10.0) 18 (5.4) 0.038
Average monthly household expenditure (in ZAR, mean, SEMb)
 Groceries 897.8 (13.3) 830.8 (14.9) 0.105
 Rent and utilities 209.1 (11.9) 232.1(12.5) 0.132
 Cooking fuel 91.9 (3.1) 69.1(3.8) 0.004
 Clothing 196.8 (13.1) 190.1 (10.2) 0.688
 Transport 254.8.2 (9.0) 262.3.7 (12.3) 0.713
 Electricity 195.7 (10.9) 166.7 (8.5) 0.012
Purchased sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)
 Daily/Weekly 114 (42.5) 154 (57.5) 0.014
 Monthly or seldom 88 (33.0) 179 (67.0)  
Morbidity
Diabetes mellitus only (Yes) 38 (18.8) 91 (45.4) 0.016
Any NCD (diabetes, hypertension, heart disease or stroke) 70 (34.7) 132 (65.3) 0.144
Co-morbidity - two or more NCD (Yes) 23 (11.4) 38 (18.8) 0.556
  1. Proportions are present as column percentages; a row percentage (overall Total)
  2. NCD non-communicable diseases, SD standard deviation, PURE prospective urban and rural epidemiology, SEM standard error of mean
  3. NCD Non-communicable diseases, SEM Standard error of mean
  4. b Those who reported eating at least two types (varieties) of fruit and/or vegetables
  5. * P-values show comparisons at 95% CI: using Pearson Chi-square test for categorical variables and ANOVA test for mean comparison of continuous variables;
  6. c Langa 1 (Main Langa: Moderate SES area- PURE study Cohort), d Langa 2 (the Zones/low SES areas – non-PURE study cohort); Mt. Frere 1: Rural low SES – PURE study cohorts)