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Table 1 Participants’ characteristics

From: Low intake of commonly available fruits and vegetables in socio-economically disadvantaged communities of South Africa: influence of affordability and sugary drinks intake

  Overall Urban Rural
Variables Langa 1a Langa 2b Mt Frerec p-valueg
N 535 228 190 117  
Gender
 Women 411 (76.8) 175 (76.8) 140 (73.7) 96 (82.1) 0.241
 Men 124 (23.2) 53 (23.2) 50 (26.2) 21 (17.9)
Age
 <  50 years 264 (49.3) 75 (32.9) 161 (84.7) 28 (23.9) 0.001
 ≥ 50 years 271 (50.7) 153 (67.1) 29 (15.3) 89 (76.1)
Education
 None or Primary 175 (32.7) 82 (36.0) 39 (20.5) 54 (46.2) 0.001
 Secondary /Post-secondary School 360 (67.3) 146 (64.0) 151 (79.5) 63 (53.8)
Employment
 Unemployed 410 (76.6) 175 (76.8) 131 (68.9) 104 (88.9) 0.001
 Employed 125 (23.4) 53 (23.2) 59 (31.1) 13 (11.1)
Household monthly income:
  < R2000 293 (54.8) 137 (60.0) 71 (37.4) h 85 (72.6) h 0.001
 R2000–5000 193 (36.0) 75 (32.9) 89 (46.8) h 29 (24.8)
 R5001–15000 49 (9.2) 16 (17.1) 30 (15.8) 3 (2.6)
Monthly grocery expense/person
  < R1000 332 (62.1) 156 (68.4) 101 (53.2) 75 (64.1) 0.005
 R1000–3500e 203 (37.9) 72 (31.6) 89 (46.8) 42 (35.9)
Amount spent on groceries); mean (SD) 856.4 (19.9) 803.1 (28.0) 939.5 (36.4) 825.3 (42.0) 0.008
Grow vegetable/fruits in own garden (Yes) 95 (17.8) 9 (3.9) 0 (0) 86 (73.5) 0.001
Purchase fruits and vegetables daily/weekly (Yes) 379 (70.8) 175 (76.8) 17 (91.1) 31 (26.5) 0.001
Buy sugary drinks daily/weekly 268 (50.1) 131 (57.5) 119 (62.6) 18 (15.4) 0.001
Buy sugary drink monthly/seldom 267 (49.9) 97 (42.5) 71 (37.4) 99 (84.6)
Own a car
 Yes 38 (7.1) 19 (8.3) 11 (5.8) 8 (6.8) 0.597
 No 457 (92.9) 209 (9.7) 179 (94.2) 116 (93.2)
Own TV
 Yes 460 (86.0) 213 (93.4) 156 (82.1) 91 (77.8) 0.001
 No 75 (14.0) 15 (6.6) 34 (17.9) 26 (22.2)
Own functional fridge
 Yes 118 (22.1) 22 (9.6) 58 (30.5) 38 (32.5) 0.001
 No 417 (77.9) 206 (90.4) 132 (69.5) 79 (67.5)
Transportation to grocery store by
 taxi/bus/train 279 (52.1) 125 (54.8) 71 (37.4) i 83 (70.9) i 0.001
 own vehicle 45 (8.4) 12 (5.3) 6 (3.2) 7 (6.0)
 Walking 211 (39.4) 91 (39.9) 113(59.5) i 27 (23.1) i
Minutes walked to grocery storef
 > 15 min 140 (26.2) 97 (42.5) 13 (6.8) 30 (25.6) 0.001
 1–15 min 395 (73.8) 131 (57.5) 177 (93.2) 87 (74.4)
Diagnosed with diabetes
 Yes 129 (24.1) 108 (47.4) 4 (2.1) 17 (14.5) 0.001
 No 406 (75.9) 120 (52.6) 186 (97.9) 100 (85.5)
Diagnosed with hypertension
 Yes 126 (23.6) 44 (19.3) 22 (11.6) 60 (51.3) 0.001
 No 409 (76.4) 184 (80.7) 168 (88.4) 57 (48.7)
Had NCD d 202 (37.8) 112 (49.1) 24 (12.6) 66 (56.4) 0.001
Had no NCD 333 (62.2) 116 (50.9) 166 (87.4) 51 (43.6)
  1. PURE Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology, SD standard deviation; Proportions are given as column percentages
  2. a Langa 1 (Main Langa: Moderate-High SES area- PURE study Cohort), b Langa 2 (low SES adjoining area– non-PURE study cohort); c Mt. Frere Rural (PURE study rural cohorts); d Reported any of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, or stroke)
  3. e Three persons spent more than R3500 on groceries per month (and were added to this category)
  4. f Grocery store included a Spaza shop, retail shop, and convenience store in or outside the study community
  5. gThe mean difference is significant at 0.05 level (95% CI) based on the observed mean
  6. h–i Post-hoc analyses showed significant difference taking Income h’R5001–15000′, and i ‘Own Vehicle’ as references