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Table 3 Determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in urban and rural population of Indian mothers, NFHS 2015–2016

From: National and rural-urban prevalence and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in India

  Urban residence Rural residence
  Unadjusted OR 95% CI P value Adjusteda OR 95% CI P value Unadjusted OR 95% CI P value Adjusteda OR 95% CI P value
Socio-economic factors
 Maternal working status
  Not working 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Working 0.88 0.62–1.24 0.471 0.88 0.62–1.24 0.460 0.88 0.76–1.02 0.099 0.87 0.75–1.01 0.071
 Maternal education
  No education 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Primary 1.21 0.99–1.48 0.063 1.03 0.70–1.51 0.881 1.18 1.10–1.25 < 0.001 1.08 0.92–1.26 0.353
  Secondary and above 1.34 1.17–1.53 < 0.001 1.33 0.95–1.87 0.093 1.38 1.32–1.45 < 0.001 1.40 1.23–1.59 < 0.001
 Father’s education
  No education 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Primary 0.84 0.59–1.21 0.349 0.76 0.51–1.12 0.168 1.18 1.05–1.33 0.006 1.00 0.87–1.14 0.981
  Secondary and above 0.66 0.45–0.98 0.041 0.59 0.37–0.94 0.028 1.02 0.85–1.23 0.798 0.81 0.66–1.00 0.050
Individual factors
 Marital status
  Currently married 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Never married / formerly married (divorced/separated/widow) 1.13 0.71–1.78 0.505 2.31 0.76–7.03 0.141 1.25 1.01–1.56 0.037 1.96 1.17–3.28 0.010
Health service factors
 Mode of delivery
  Vaginal delivery 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Caesarean delivery 0.57 0.51–0.64 < 0.001 0.51 0.44–0.57 < 0.001 0.69 0.64–0.73 < 0.001 0.54 0.50–0.58 < 0.001
 Type of delivery assistance
  Health professionals 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Traditional birth attendants 0.67 0.55–0.83 < 0.001 0.83 0.66–1.05 0.118 0.73 0.68–0.79 < 0.001 0.88 0.81–0.96 0.002
  Other non-health professionals 0.72 0.62–0.84 < 0.001 0.81 0.68–0.96 0.015 0.74 0.70–0.79 < 0.001 0.85 0.80–0.91 < 0.001
 Antenatal Clinic visits
  None 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
  1–3 0.91 0.76–1.10 0.350 0.82 0.66–1.02 0.070 1.19 1.12–1.27 < 0.001 1.02 0.95–1.09 0.663
  Four or more 1.32 1.11–1.57 0.002 1.24 1.00–1.53 0.051 1.74 1.63–1.86 < 0.001 1.48 1.36–1.60 < 0.001
 Place of delivery
  Home 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Health facility 1.53 1.30–1.81 < 0.001 1.45 1.18–1.78 < 0.001 1.40 1.32–1.48 < 0.001 1.19 1.11–1.27 < 0.001
Environmental factors
 Geographical region
  North 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
  South 2.30 1.97–2.69 < 0.001 2.21 1.57–3.09 < 0.001 1.92 1.74–2.11 < 0.001 1.67 1.35–2.05 < 0.001
  East 1.87 1.56–2.25 < 0.001 1.39 0.94–2.04 0.100 1.41 1.30–1.53 < 0.001 1.56 1.29–1.88 < 0.001
  West 2.52 2.09–3.04 < 0.001 1.63 1.08–2.46 0.019 2.40 2.14–2.68 < 0.001 2.14 1.66–2.75 < 0.001
  Central 0.77 0.67–0.89 < 0.001 0.67 0.49–0.91 0.011 0.87 0.80–0.93 < 0.001 0.95 0.80–1.13 0.556
  North-East 2.99 2.48–3.60 < 0.001 2.46 1.60–3.79 < 0.001 3.52 3.15–3.94 < 0.001 4.04 3.09–5.27 < 0.001
  1. Statistically significant (using confidence interval and P < 0.05) study factors from multivariate models are shown; aAdjusted for listening to radio/television, reading newspaper/magazine, religion, caste/tribe, religion, child age, baby sex, maternal age, birth order, birth interval and maternal body mass index