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Table 2 Determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in the total population of Indian mothers, NFHS 2015–2016

From: National and rural-urban prevalence and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in India

  Unadjusted OR 95% CI P value Adjusteda OR 95% CI P value
Socioeconomic factors
 Maternal working status
  Not working 1.00    1.00   
  Working 0.88 0.76–1.00 0.061 0.87 0.75–1.00 0.044
 Maternal education
  No education 1.00    1.00   
  Primary 1.19 1.11–1.27 < 0.001 1.09 0.93–1.26 0.285
  Secondary and above 1.38 1.32–1.44 < 0.001 1.40 1.24–1.59 < 0.001
 Father’s education
  No education 1.00    1.00   
  Primary 1.12 1.00–1.27 0.058 0.95 0.83–1.08 0.449
  Secondary and above 0.95 0.80–1.12 0.514 0.75 0.62–0.91 0.004
Individual factors
 Marital status
  Currently married 1.00    1.00   
  Never married / formerly married (divorced/separated/widow) 1.22 1.00–1.48 0.046 2.08 1.30–3.35 0.002
 Preceding birth interval
  No previous birth 1.00    1.00   
   < 24 months 0.99 0.94–1.05 0.819 1.16 1.02–1.34 0.027
   > 24 months 1.06 1.01–1.102 0.011 1.15 1.03–1.28 0.010
Health Service factors
 Mode of delivery
  Vaginal delivery 1.00    1.00   
  Caesarean delivery 0.66 0.62–0.70 < 0.001 0.53 0.49–0.56 < 0.001
 Type of delivery assistance
  Health professionals 1.00    1.00   
  Traditional birth attendants 0.72 0.67–0.77 < 0.001 0.87 0.80–0.94 < 0.001
  Other non-health professionals 0.74 0.70–0.78 < 0.001 0.84 0.79–0.90 < 0.001
 Antenatal clinic visits
  None 1.00    1.00   
  1–3 1.14 1.07–1.21 < 0.001 0.98 0.91–1.05 0.531
  Four or more 1.65 1.55–1.76 < 0.001 1.43 1.33–1.55 < 0.001
 Place of delivery
  Home 1.00    1.00   
  Health facility 1.43 1.36–1.51 < 0.001 1.22 1.14–1.31 < 0.001
Environmental factor
 Geographical region
  North 1.00    1.00   
  South 2.05 1.89–2.23 < 0.001 1.88 1.57–2.25 < 0.001
  East 1.50 1.39–1.61 < 0.001 1.50 1.26–1.78 < 0.001
  West 2.43 2.20–2.68 < 0.001 1.92 1.53–2.40 < 0.001
  Central 0.85 0.80–0.91 < 0.001 0.87 0.75–1.01 0.070
  North East 3.50 3.17–3.86 < 0.001 3.64 2.89–4.60 < 0.001
  1. Statistically significant (using confidence interval and P < 0.05) study factors from multivariate models are shown; aAdjusted for listening to radio/television, reading newspaper/magazine, religion, caste/tribe, religion, child age, baby sex, place of residence, birth order, maternal age and maternal body mass index