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Table 1 Prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) by study factors among children aged 0–23 months in India, NFHS 2015–2016

From: National and rural-urban prevalence and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in India

  Total population (India) Rural Urban
N* Prevalence
(95% CI)
P value N* Prevalence
(95% CI)
P value N* Prevalence
(95% CI)
P value
EIBF
 Yes 39,048 41.5 (40.9–42.1) < 0.001 27,951 41.0 (40.3–41.6) < 0.001 11,097 42.9 (41.7–44.2) < 0.001
 No 55,056 58.5 (57.9–59.1)   40,309 59.1 (58.4–59.7)   14,747 57 (55.8–58.3)  
Socio-economic factors
 Maternal working status
  Not working 6,228 16.0 (15.3–16.7) 0.064 4,279 15.3 (14.6–16.1) 0.135 1,949 17.6 (16.1–19.2) 0.542
  Working 772 2.0 (1.8–2.2)   597 2.1 (1.9–2.4)   175 1.6 (1.2–2.0)  
 Maternal education
  No education 9,344 23.9 (23.2–24.6) < 0.001 7,919 28.3 (27.5–29.2) < 0.001 1,425 12.8 (11.7, 14.1) < 0.001
  Primary 5,125 13.1 (12.6–13.7)   3,980 14.2 (13.7–14.8)   1,145 10.3 (9.1–11.7)  
  Secondary and above 24,578 62.9 (62.1–63.8)   16,052 57.4 (56.5–58.4)   8,526 76.8 (75.1–78.5)  
 Father’s education
  No education 1,122 2.9 (2.6–3.1) 0.0186 888 3.2 (2.9–3.5) 0.020 234 2.1 (1.6–2.7) 0.149
  Primary 4,879 12.5 (11.9–13.1)   3,446 12.3 (11.7–13.0)   1,433 12.9 (11.7–14.3)  
  Secondary and above 972 2.5 (2.2–2.8)   522 1.9 (1.7–2.1)   450 4.1 (3.4–4.9)  
 Household wealth index
  Poor 17,804 45.6 (44.6–46.6) < 0.001 16,226 58.1 (57.1–59.1) < 0.001 1,578 14.2 (12.9–15.7) 0.030
  Middle 8,226 21.1 (20.4–21.8)   6,093 21.8 (21.1–22.5)   2,133 19.2 (17.8–20.8)  
  Rich 13,018 33.3 (32.4–34.3)   5,632 20.2 (19.4–20.9)   7,386 66.6 (64.6–68.5)  
Individual factors
 Mother’s age
  15–19 years 2,302 5.9 (5.5–6.3) < 0.001 1,834 6.6 (6.2–7.0) < 0.001 468 4.2 (3.5–5.0) 0.037
  20–34 years 34,837 89.2 (88.8–89.7)   24,683 88.3 (87.8–88.8)   10,154 91.5 (90.5–92.4)  
  35–49 years 1,909 4.9 (4.6–5.2)   1,434 5.1 (4.8–5.5)   475 4.3 (3.7–5.0)  
 Marital status
  Currently married 38,715 99.2 (99.0–99.3) 0.045 27,690 99.1 (98.9–99.2) 0.036 11,025 99.4 (99.1–99.6) 0.474
  Never married / formerly married (divorced/separated/widow) 333 0.8 (0.7–0.9)   261 0.9 (0.7–1.1)   71 0.6 (0.4–0.9)  
Health service factors
 Place of delivery
  Home 5,781 14.8 (14.2–15.4) < 0.001 4,965 17.8 (17.0–18.5) < 0.001 816 7.4 (6.4–8.5) < 0.001
  Health facility 33,267 85.2 (84.6–85.8)   22,986 82.2 (81.5–83.0)   10,281 92.7 (91.5–93.7)  
 Mode of delivery
  Vaginal delivery 33,009 84.5 (83.9–85.2) < 0.001 24,611 88.1 (87.4–88.6) < 0.001 8,398 75.7 (73.9–77.4) < 0.001
  Caesarean delivery 6,039 15.5 (14.8–16.2)   3,340 12.0 (11.4–12.6)   2,698 24.3 (22.6–26.1)  
 Type of delivery assistance
  Health professionals 28,891 74.0 (73.2–74.8) < 0.001 19,629 70.2 (69.4–71.1) < 0.001 9,262 83.5 (81.9–84.9) < 0.001
  Traditional birth attendants 3,242 8.3 (7.9–8.8)   2,771 9.9 (9.4–10.5)   472 4.3 (3.6–5.0)  
  Other non-health professionals 6,669 17.1 (16.5–17.7)   5,343 19.1 (18.4–19.9)   1,326 12.0 (10.7–13.3)  
 Antenatal clinic visits
  None 5,182 13.3 (12.7–13.9) < 0.001 4,259 15.2 (14.6–16.0) < 0.001 923 8.3 (7.3–9.5) < 0.001
  1–3 11,551 29.6 (28.9–30.3)   9,286 33.2 (32.4–34.1)   2,265 20.4 (18.9–22.0)  
  Four or more 22,015 56.4 (55.5–57.3)   14,211 50.8 (49.8–51.9)   7,805 70.3 (68.5–72.0)  
Environmental factor
 Geographical region
  North 3,853 9.9 (9.3–10.4) < 0.001 2,618 9.4 (8.8–9.9) < 0.001 1,235 11.1 (10.0–12.4) < 0.001
  South 8,527 21.8 (20.8–22.9)   5,017 18.0 (16.9–19.0)   3,510 31.6 (29.7–33.6)  
  East 10,321 26.4 (25.3–27.6)   8,503 30.4 (29.2–31.7)   1,818 16.4 (14.8–18.1)  
  West 6,440 16.5 (15.4–17.7)   3,710 13.3 (12.3–14.4)   2,730 24.6 (22.3–27.1)  
  Central 7,790 20.0 (19.2–20.7)   6,260 22.4 (21.5–23.4)   1,530 13.8 (12.8–14.9)  
  North-East 2,117 5.4 (5.1–5.8)   1,843 6.6 (6.1–7.1)   274 2.5 (2.2–2.7)  
  1. Prevalence (EIBF): The proportion of children 0–23 months of age who were put to the breast within one hour of birth; N*: the weighted total number varies between categories due to missing data