Skip to main content

Table 6 Un- adjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RR) for coping strategies for financial constraints by households with and without a member living with depression

From: Catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment in households of persons with depression: a cross-sectional, comparative study in rural Ethiopia

Characteristics Coping strategies implemented for financial constraints
Sold assets Drew up accounts at shops Cut down food consumption Withdrew children from school Supported by relatives Reduced medical visits Used savings Took on extra work
A) Unadjusted model
  RR (95% CI) RR (95%CI) RR (95%CI) RR (95%CI) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI)
Depression and high disability 0. 9 (0.7–1.1) 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 1.6 (1.0–2.7) 2.5 (1.1–7.3) 1.5 (0.8–2.6) 4.2 (1.9–9.4) 0.6 (0.2–1.9) 1.0 (0.6–1.7)
Depression and low disability 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.7 (0.4–1.4) 1.2 (0.6–2.1) 1.8 (0.5–5.6) 1.1 (0.6–2.0) 2.6 (1.0–6.1) 1.3 (0.6–3.1) 0.8 (0.4–1.4)
Comparison group without depression 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
b) Adjusted model #
  RR (95% CI) RR (95%CI) RR (95%CI) RR (95%CI) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI)
Depression and high disability 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 1.1 (0.4–2.5) 2.0 (1.1–4.5) 3.0 (1.0–8.5) 1.5 (0.9–2.6) 4.4 (2.1–9.3) 0.4 (0.1–1.5) 0.8 (0.5–1.3)
Depression and low disability 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.7 (0.4–1.4) 1.1 (0.5–2.7) 1.5 (0.4–5.1) 1.0 (0.5–2.0) 2.3 (1.0–5.7) 1.3 (0.6–3.1) 1.1 (0.8–1.5)
Comparison group without depression 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  1. # The model included control variables (i.e. residence, gender and consumption quintiles); CI, confidence interval; RR, risk ratio; †; reference group
  2. Bold, significant at P < 0.05