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Table 4 Predictors of catastrophic health expenditure among households of a person with depression and comparison households

From: Catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment in households of persons with depression: a cross-sectional, comparative study in rural Ethiopia

Factors Catastrophic headcount§ N (%) Unadjusted model Adjusted model
RR (95%CI) RR (95%CI)
Mental health condition
 Depression and high disability 13 (24.0) 1.9 (1.0–4.1) 2.1 (1.1–4.6)
 Depression and low disability 8 (15.3) 1.2 (0.4–2.9) 1.3 (0.5–3.1)
 Comparison without depression 10 (12.2) 1.00 1.00
Area of residence
 Urban 8 (21.6) 1.4 (1.0–2.9) 1.6 (1.0–3.3)
 Rural 23 (15.2) 1.00 1.00
Gender of the household head
 Male 27 (17.2) 1.2 (0.5–2.6) 0.9 (0.3–2.1)
 Female 6 (14.6) 1.00 1.00
Consumption quintile
 Quintile 1 (lowest) 6 (21.4) 1.5 (0.5–4.1) 1.1 (0.4–3.1)
 Quintile 2 2 (6.6) 0.4 (0.1–2.1) 0.3 (0.08–1.5)
 Quintile 3 7 (18.4) 1.3 (0.5–3.5) 0.8 (0.3–2.2)
 Quintile 4 9 (21.9) 1.5 (0.6–3.9) 1.1 (0.4–2.6)
 Quintile 5 (highest) 7 (13.7) 1.00 1.00
Children in the household
 0 2 (7.4) 0.3 (0.05–0.9) 0.2 (0.06–0.8)
 1 or 2 13 (15.4) 0.7 (0.3–1.4) 0.5 (0.2–1.2)
 3 or more 16 (20.7) 1.00 1.00
Household head education
 No formal education 19 (17.4) 0.9 (0.3–2.4) 0.8 (0.3–2.2)
 Primary education 7 (14.0) 0.7 (0.2–2.2) 0.5 (0.2–1.6)
 More than primary education 5 (17.8) 1.00 1.00
Household having a member above 60 years old
 Yes 26 (17.4) 1.2 (0.5–3.1) 1.0 (0.4–2.5)
 No 5 (13.5) 1.00 1.00
  1. §Catastrophic defined as health payments ≥ 10% of total consumption. †; reference group
  2. CI, confidence interval; RR, risk ratio; Bold, significant at P < 0.05