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Table 3 Impoverishing effect of out-of-pocket payments based on pre and post payments on health care

From: Catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment in households of persons with depression: a cross-sectional, comparative study in rural Ethiopia

  Depression and high disability Depression and low disability Comparison without depression
Poverty head count
 Pre-payment head count A 12.6% 12.3% 10.8%
 Post payment head count B 18.4% 15.8% 13.1%
 Absolute percentage point change (impact) C(=B-A) 5.8% 3.5% 2.3%
 Relative percentage change (=C/A*100) 46.0% 28.4% 21.2%
Poverty gaps
 Prepayment poverty gap A$ 8.7 5.3 6.8
 Post payment poverty gap B$ 9.9 5.6 6.9
 Absolute point change (impact)C(=B-A) $ 1.2 0.3 0.1
 Relative percentage change(=C/A*100) 13.7% 5.6% 1.5%
Normalized poverty gaps
 Pre-payment normalized gap A 4.7% 2.9% 3.7%
 Post-payment normalized gap B 5.4% 3.0% 3.8%
 Absolute percentage point change (impact) C(=B-A) 0.7% 0.1% 0.1%
 Relative percentage change(=C/A*100) 14.8% 3.4% 2.7%
  1. $ (USD), USD1 = Birr 20.69 (2015);
  2. Bold, significant at P < 0.05 for Pearson’s χ2; for Kruskal-Wallis comparing pre and post payment by depression sub-groups