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Table 1 Characteristics of study households by mental health condition and severity

From: Catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment in households of persons with depression: a cross-sectional, comparative study in rural Ethiopia

Household (HH) Characteristics Households of person with depression (n = 128) Comparison households (n = 129)
Depression and high disability (n = 65) Depression and low disability (n = 63)
Socio-demographic and economic
 Age of HH head (years), mean (SD) 48.7 (11.8) 44.1 (12.9) 44.2 (13.8)
 HH size, mean (SD) 5.2 (2.1) 4.9 (1.9) 5.0 (2.0)
 Adult Equivalent Size, mean (SD) 2.7 (0.9) 2.6 (0.8) 2.6 (0.8)
 HH with at least one older person ≥60 years old, n (%) 15 (23.0) 14 (22.9) 28 (21.8)
 HH with at least one child younger than 15 years, n (%) 56 (86.1) 49 (80.3) 112 (87.5)
Residence, n (%)
 Rural 46 (70.8) 57 (90.5) 103 (79.8)
 Urban 19 (29.2) 6 (9.5) 26 (20.2)
Gender, n (%)
 Male 52 (80.0) 49 (80.3) 96 (75.0)
 Female 13 (20.0) 12 (19.7) 32 (25.0)
HH Head marital status, n (%)
 Never married 1 (1.5) 3 (5.0) 6 (4.7)
 Married 52 (80.0) 50 (83.3) 98 (76.6)
 Separated/divorced/widowed 12 (18.5) 7 (11.7) 24 (18.7)
HH Head education, n (%)
 No formal education, n (%) 44 (67.67) 38 (60.3) 67 (52.4)
 Primary education 13 (20.0) 19 (30.2) 36 (28.1)
 More than primary 8 (12.3) 6 (9.5) 25 (19.5)
 HH with health insurance, n (%) 2 (3.1) 1 (1.6) 9 (6.9)
 Annual total consumption, median (IQR) ††$ 369.7 (253.8, 519.0) 485.9 (320.4, 795.5) 495.6 (339.6, 778.3)
 Annual health payments, mean (SD) ††$ 45.3 (111.4) 37.6 (50.7) 28.9 (39.2)
Clinical Characteristics
 Functioning
  Index patient WHODAS, median (IQR) 47.2 (38.9, 61.1) 16.6 (11.1, 25.0)
 Symptom scores
  Index patient PHQ-9, median (IQR) 12.0 (9.0, 15.0) 9.0 (6.0, 11.0)
  1. Bold, significant at P < 0.05 using Pearson’s χ2.for categorical data; Kruskal-Wallis for non-normal continuous data; Analysis of variance for normal data; †† adult equivalent; $ = USD; USD 1 = Birr 20.69 (2015); HH (household);
  2. WHODAS (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale); IQR (Inter-Quartile Range); SD (Standard Deviation); PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire − 9-item version)