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Table 3 General characteristics, socioeconomic factors, anthropometric measurements, consumed oil type, and physical activity status in the participants with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D)

From: Food insecurity is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes: a case-control study of new referrals to the University clinics, Shiraz, Southern Iran

Variables Cases Controls OR (95% CI) P-value
Number (%) or Mean ± SD Number (%) or Mean ± SD
Food security status Food secure 45 (33.3) 79 (58.5) 1 < 0.001* < 0.001
Food insecure Food insecure without hunger 64 (47.5) 51 (37.8) 2.8 (1.71–4.63)
Food insecure with moderate hunger 20 (14.8) 5 (3.7)
Food insecure with severe hunger 6 (4.4) 0 (0)
Depression status Not depressed 76 (56.3) 99 (73.3) 1 0.003* 0.004
Depressed 59 (43.7) 36 (26.7) 2.1 (1.28–3.55)
Educational level Diploma and higher 38 (28.1) 66 (48.9) 1 < 0.001* 0.001
Under diploma 97 (71.9) 69 (51.1) 2.4 (1.47–4.04)
Economic status Good (wealthy & average) 59 (43.7) 85 (63.0) 1 0.002* 0.002
Poor 76 (56.3) 50 (37.0) 2.1 (1.34–3.56)
Family size Less than 5 people 53 (39.3) 72 (53.3) 1 0.020* 0.021
5 people and more 82 (60.7) 63 (46.7) 1.7 (1.09–2.86)
Number of children Less than 4 children 50 (37.0) 73 (54.1) 1 0.005* 0.005
4 children and more 85 (63.0) 62 (45.9) 2.0 (1.23–3.25)
Having children under 18 No 83 (61.5) 105 (77.8) 1 0.004* 0.004
Yes 52 (38.5) 30 (22.2) 2.1 (1.28–3.73)
Income status ≥6,000,000 riyal IRN 61 (45.2) 92 (68.1) 1 < 0.001* < 0.001
< 6,000,000 riyal IRN 74 (54.8) 43 (31.9) 2.5 (1.58–4.26)
Consumed oil type Liquid 72 (53.3) 104 (77.0) 1 < 0.001* < 0.001
Solid and liquid 63 (46.7) 31 (23.0) 2.9 (1.73–4.96)
BMI 18.5–24.9 (normal) 48 (35.6) 73 (54.1) 1 0.002* 0.002
≥25 (overweight/obese) 87 (64.4) 62 (45.9) 2.1 (1.30–3.47)
Marital status Single, deceased spouse and divorced 18 (13.3) 15 (11.1) 0.57*
Married 117 (86.7) 120 (88.9)
Employment status Housewife 90 (66.7) 75 (55.6) 0.06*
Employed 45 (33.3) 60 (44.4)
Menopause status female Menopause 52 (38.5) 36 (26.7) 0.10*
Non-menopause 47 (34.8) 53 (39.3)
Male 36 (26.7) 46 (34.1)
Gender Female 99 (73.3) 89 (65.9) 0.18*
Male 36 (26.7) 46 (34.1)
Age (yrs) 46.8 ± 5.4 45.9 ± 5.9 0.19
Weight (kg) 74.4 ± 9.7 71.6 ± 9.3 0.016
Height (cm) 165.1 ± 8.2 166.9 ± 7.7 0.06
BMI \( \left(\frac{kg}{m^2}\right) \) 28.0 ± 4.0 26.1 ± 3.3 < 0.001
The amount of activity \( \left(\frac{MET. Hr}{day}\right) \) 36.7 ± 3.3 40.1 ± 4.9 < 0.001
Final energy of activities \( \frac{Kcal}{Hr} \) 2630.5 ± 454.2 2782.3 ± 525.5 0.012
  1. *Chi-square test; Logistic regression; Independent t-test