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Table 1 Study population characteristics and prevalence of sleep problems and sleep medication use, 4 weeks (n = 7985)

From: Over-indebtedness and its association with sleep and sleep medication use

  OID surveya n = 538 DEGS1b n = 7447 Differences between samples
n % n % p-value
Sex p = 0.846
 Female 283 52.6 3885 52.2  
 Male 255 47.4 3562 47.8  
Age p < 0.001
 18–29 years 103 19.1 1047 14.1  
 30–49 years 278 51.7 2444 32.8  
 50–64 years 130 24.2 2151 28.9  
 65–79 years 27.0 5.0 1805 24.2  
Marital status p < 0.001
 Married 112 20.8 4730 63.5  
 Separated/Divorced/Widowed 205 38.1 1012 13.6  
 Single 214 39.8 1642 22.0  
 Missing 7 1.3 63 0.8  
Education level p < 0.001
 Low 220 40.9 959 12.9  
 Medium 281 52.2 3994 53.6  
 High 30 5.8 2473 33.2  
 Missing 7 1.3 21 0.3  
Employment status p = 0.927
 Not employed 188 34.9 2830 38.0  
 Employed 300 55.8 4556 61.2  
 Missing 50 9.3 61 0.8  
Depression/anxiety p < 0.001
 No 408 75.8 6881 92.4  
 Yes 87 16.2 471 6.3  
 Missing 43 8.0 95 1.3  
Subjective health status p < 0.001
  (Very) good 224 41.6 5539 74.4  
 Fair/(very) poor 311 57.7 1878 25.3  
 Missing 3 0.6 30 0.4  
Problems with sleep onset p < 0.001
 No 149 27.7 3539 47.5  
 Yes 389 72.3 3908 52.4  
Problems with sleep maintenance p < 0.001
 No 140 26.0 2590 34.8  
 Yes 398 74.0 4857 65.2  
Sleep medication use p < 0.001
 No 422 78.4 7003 94.0  
 Yes 116 21.6 444 6.0  
  1. aOver-indebted sample, Germany (2017); bGeneral population sample, Germany (2008–2011)
  2. Chi-squared test