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Table 3 Mean scores for outcome measures as predictor variables of employment status among participants (n = 1086)

From: Unemployment and work disability in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a community-based cross-sectional study from Spain

Measures Employed (n = 450) Unemployed (n = 636) p-valuea
VAS-pain 7.3 ± 1.9 7.6 ± 1.8 <  0.001***
VAS-fatigue 8.1 ± 1.0 8.4 ± 1.2 <  0.001***
FIQ 57.0 ± 7.4 59.6 ± 6.2 <  0.001***
FIS-40
 Global score 123.1 ± 22.7 133.3 ± 19.8 <  0.001***
 Physical 34.2 ± 4.9 36.1 ± 3.7 <  0.001***
 Cognitive 30.3 ± 7.0 32.7 ± 6.9 <  0.001***
 Psychosocial 58.4 ± 13.2 64.6 ± 11.2 <  0.001***
D-FIS-8 23.3 ± 5.0 25.8 ± 4.4 <  0.001***
SCL-90-R
 Global severity index 1.6 ± 0.8 1.9 ± 0.8 <  0.001***
 Positive symptom distress index 2.4 ± 0.5 2.6 ± 0.5 <  0.001***
 Global positive symptom 59.5 ± 17.9 62.9 ± 17.6 0.002**
 Somatization 2.4 ± 0.8 2.7 ± 0.8 <  0.001***
 Obsessive-compulsive 2.4 ± 0.9 2.6 ± 0.9 0.001***
 Interpersonal sensitivity 1.4 ± 1.0 1.5 ± 1.0 0.040*
 Depression 2.0 ± 0.9 2.3 ± 0.9 <  0.001***
 Anxiety 1.5 ± 1.0 1.7 ± 1.0 <  0.001***
 Hostility 1.2 ± 1.0 1.2 ± 1.0 0.400
 Phobic anxiety 1.1 ± 1.0 1.5 ± 1.1 <  0.001***
 Paranoid ideation 1.1 ± 1.0 1.2 ± 1.0 0.544
 Psychoticism 1.0 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 0.8 0.007**
HADS
 Global score 20.5 ± 4.6 22.6 ± 4.5 0.002**
 Anxiety 10.7 ± 4.8 11.1 ± 4.7 0.209
 Depression 9.8 ± 4.8 11.3 ± 4.6 <  0.001***
PSQI
 Global score 12.7 ± 4.4 14.0 ± 4.2 <  0.001***
 Subjective sleep quality 2.0 ± 0.9 2.2 ± 0.9 0.001**
 Sleep latency 1.9 ± 1.0 2.1 ± 0.9 0.002**
 Sleep duration 1.7 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 1.0 0.037*
 Habitual sleep efficiency 1.4 ± 1.2 1.7 ± 1.2 <  0.001***
 Sleep disturbances 2.0 ± 0.7 2.2 ± 0.6 <  0.001***
 Use of sleeping medication 1.6 ± 1.4 2.0 ± 1.4 <  0.001***
 Daytime dysfunction 2.2 ± 0.9 2.2 ± 0.9 0.649
SF-36
 Physical functioning 40.3 ± 21 28.5 ± 18.9 <  0.001***
 Physical role 8.8 ± 20.8 3.1 ± 13.1 <  0.001***
 Bodily pain 24.5 ± 19.2 17.3 ± 17 <  0.001***
 General health 26.3 ± 15.9 21.3 ± 14.4 <  0.001***
 Vitality 16.9 ± 14.1 13.2 ± 14.1 <  0.001***
 Social role functioning 37.6 ± 24.4 26.8 ± 22.2 <  0.001***
 Emotional role functioning 47.0 ± 45.5 38.3 ± 45.1 0.001***
 Mental health 44.7 ± 20.7 41.6 ± 21.7 0.012*
 Physical component 28.0 ± 7.4 24.7 ± 6.4 <  0.001***
 Mental component 35.1 ± 12.7 32.9 ± 13.1 0.004**
  1. Data are given as mean ± standard deviation (SD) in the sample
  2. Abbreviations: VAS Visual analogue scale, FIQ Fatigue intensity questionnaire, FIS Fatigue impact scale, SCL-90-R Symptom checklist-90-revised, HADS Hospital anxiety and depression scale, PSQI Pittsburgh sleep questionnaire index, SF-36 Short form 36-item health survey
  3. *Significance at 0.05
  4. **Significance at 0.01
  5. ***Significance at 0.001
  6. aData analysis using the Mann-Whitney U test for independent samples