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Table 3 Regression results for Tobacco Smoking

From: Factors affecting tobacco smoking in Ethiopia: evidence from the demographic and health surveys

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Variables Odds ratio (95% CI) Odds ratio (95% CI) Odds ratio (95% CI)
Fixed part
Individual-level variables
 2016 Survey Year (ref: 2011 year) 0.634* (0.546, 0.737) 0.652* (0.564, 0.753) 0.647* (0.560, 0.747)
 Chewing khat in the 30 days preceding the survey 8.162* (6.966, 9.564)
 Sex (Ref: female) 7.065* (5.792, 8.617) 7.536* (6.172, 9.202) 9.908* (8.169, 12.017)
 Age (ref: [15,16,17,18,19])
  20–24 3.842* (2.910, 5.074) 3.821* (2.906, 5.025) 4.530* (3.446, 5.955)
  25–29 5.951* (4.442, 7.972) 6.007* (4.509, 8.002) 7.437* (5.575, 9.922)
  30–34 8.059* (5.923, 10.966) 8.150* (6.026, 11.023) 10.060* (7.418, 13.644)
  35–39 8.542* (6.209, 11.750) 8.628* (6.310, 11.797) 10.863* (7.938, 14.865)
  40–49 9.579* (7.000, 13.109) 9.640* (7.093, 13.101) 11.909* (8.721, 16.262)
 Marital Status (ref: Not married)
  Married 1.078 (0.909, 1.278) 1.078 (0.912, 1.276) 1.144 (0.970, 1.350)
  Divorced 1.884* (1.502, 2.363) 1.941* (1.546,2.437) 2.041* (1.635, 2.550)
 Education (ref: No Education)
  Primary 1.008 (0.876, 1.160) 1.020 (0.889, 1.172) 1.053 (0.918, 1.209)
  Secondary 0.915 (0.748,1.119) 0.936 (0.766,1.143) 0.934 (0.765, 1.140)
  Higher 0.566* (0.444, 0.722) 0.596* (0.469, 0.758) 0.568* (0.447, 0.721)
 Occupation (ref: Unemployed)
  Professional/Clerical/Sales/Skilled/Services 1.055 (0.864, 1.289) 1.066 (0.871, 1.303) 1.239** (1.014, 1.513)
  Agriculture 1.158 (0.945, 1.418) 1.129 (0.922, 1.382) 1.356* (1.108, 1.658)
  Unskilled Manual/Other 1.517* (1.131, 2.036) 1.513* (1.130, 2.028) 1.820* (1.360, 2.437)
Household-level variables
 Household wealth quintile (ref: Very Rich)
  Quintile 1 (Very Poor) 2.511* (1.912, 3.297) 2.437* (1.871, 3.174) 2.234* (1.716, 2.909)
  Quintile 2 1.804* (1.369, 2.377) 1.780* (1.361, 2.327) 1.683* (1.288, 2.200)
  Quintile 3 1.779* (1.330,2.380) 1.746* (1.316,2.317) 1.692* (1.275, 2.246)
  Quintile 4 1.170 (0.893, 1.531) 1.172 (0.901, 1.524) 1.150 (0.884, 1.495)
 Household members smoke inside the house 11.565* (10.033, 13.331) 11.648* (10.115, 13.413) 12.065* (10.519, 13.838)
 Religion (ref: Islam)
  Orthodox 1.226** (1.014, 1.483) 1.027 (0.846, 1.246) 0.300* (0.239, 0.376)
  Catholic 2.961* (1.712, 5.122) 2.346* (1.379, 3.990) 1.096 (0.619, 1.940)
  Protestant 1.674* (1.268, 2.210) 1.285*** (0.964, 1.712) 0.473* (0.357, 0.628)
  Traditional/Other 3.783* (2.439, 5.866) 2.904* (1.882, 4.481) 1.342 (0.831, 2.168)
Community-level variables
 Place of residence (ref: Rural) 2.175* (1.641, 2.884) 2.193* (1.674, 2.872) 2.089* (1.583, 2.756)
 Administrative regions (ref: Tigray)
  Addis Ababa 3.638* (2.142, 6.178) 2.353* (1.356, 4.081) 3.537* (2.104, 5.946)
  Affar 1.904** (1.089, 3.328) 1.547 (0.864, 2.770) 1.607*** (0.948, 2.726)
  Amhara 0.689 (0.399, 1.192) 0.442* (0.230, 0.849) 0.718 (0.418, 1.233)
  Oromia 1.563 (0.841, 2.905) 1.700 (0.895, 3.230) 2.281* (1.247, 4.170)
  Benishangul-gumuz 4.890* (2.941, 8.131) 4.969* (3.044, 8.110) 3.718* (2.259, 6.121)
  SNNP 5.291* (2.186, 12.806) 4.639* (1.947, 11.052) 4.248* (1.770, 10.195)
  Eastern (Dire dawa, Harari and Somali) 2.350* (1.450,3.811) 0.649 (0.364, 1.158) 3.070* (1.905, 4.950)
  Gambela 7.084* (3.811,13.168) 8.048* (4.438, 14.596) 8.889* (4.846, 16.306)
Distance of SNNP Region from Gambela 0.686* (0.551,0.854) 0.703* (0.561,0.880) 0.731* (0.591, 0.903)
Distance of Oromia Region from Harari 0.967 (0.873, 1.072) 0.948 (0.857,1.050) 0.919*** (0.832, 1.014)
Altitude distance from the sea level 0.593* (0.451, 0.780) 0.602* (0.457, 0.794) 0.735* (0.592, 0.913)
Khat * Region (ref category: Khat Chewing Practices in Tigray)
 Khat * Addis Ababa 7.989* (5.354, 11.920)
 Khat * Affar 5.261* (3.716, 7.449)
 Khat * Amhara 10.539* (5.361, 20.719)
 Khat *Oromia 4.836* (3.419, 6.841)
 Khat * Benishangul-gumuz 2.406* (1.543, 3.752)
 Khat * SNNP 5.136* (3.050, 8.649)
 Khat * Eastern (Dire dawa, Harari and Somali) 21.896* (16.109, 29.762)
 Khat * Gambela 1.561** (1.009, 2.413)
Khat * Religion (ref category: Islamic khat chewers)
 Khat *Orthodox 7.072* (5.397, 9.268)
 Khat * Catholic 1.474 (0.591, 3.677)
 Khat * Protestant 6.930* (3.893, 12.339)
 Khat * Traditional/Other 2.028 (0.851, 4.833)
βehat 1.439* (1.093, 1.895) 2.742* (2.038, 3.691) 1.513* (1.102, 2.076)
Random part
ρa 0.17 0.15 0.15
ψb 0.661 (0.526, 0.830) 0.569 (0.449, 0.722) 0.589 (0.459, 0.756)
LR test statisticc 356.37* 295.86* 314.22*
Level 1 Units (N) 54,191 54,191 54,191
Level 2 Units 1193 1193 1193
  1. *1% significance level, ** 5% significance level, ***10% Significance level
  2. a Intra-cluster correlation
  3. b Variance of the random-intercept term
  4. c Comparing random-intercept logistic model against ordinary logit model