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Table 4 The number of publications with hypothesis-testing designs (H-designs) and non-hypothesis-testing designs (NH-designs), and their ratio by health outcome and exposures

From: Bibliometric analysis of cardiometabolic disorders studies involving NO2, PM2.5 and noise exposure

Health Outcome Exposure Number of Publications H/NH ratio p-value (χ2)
H-design NH-design
Cardiometabolic NO2 (only) 17 4 4.25 < 0.01
PM2.5 (only) 71 26 2.73 < 0.01
Noise (only) 11 25 0.44 ref
NO2 + PM2.5 46 18 2.56 < 0.01
NO2/PM2.5 + noise 14 7 2.00 < 0.01
Cardiovascular NO2 (only) 16 3 5.33 < 0.01
PM2.5 (only) 54 23 2.35 < 0.01
Noise (only) 9 24 0.38 ref
NO2 + PM2.5 38 13 2.92 < 0.01
NO2/PM2.5 + noise 10 7 1.43 0.03
Diabetes NO2 (only) 5 1 5.00 0.08
PM2.5 (only) 41 4 10.25 < 0.01
Noise (only) 2 4 0.50 ref
NO2 + PM2.5 11 8 1.34 0.29
NO2/PM2.5 + noise 8 1 8.00 0.03