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Table 3 Health service utilization in intervention and control health facilities

From: Impact of a bottom-up community engagement intervention on maternal and child health services utilization in Ghana: a cluster randomised trial

Service Components Intervention Control
  Obs. Baseline Data (2012) Follow-up Data (2014)   Obs. Baseline Data (2012) Follow-up Data (2014)  
Maternal healthcare services   Mean (SD)a Mean (SD)a p-value   Mean (SD)a Mean (SD)a p-value
 Normal deliveries 25 15 (18) 30 (33) 0.0013** 19 22 (16) 31 (26) 0.0586
 Antenatal services 24 138 (150) 183 (206) 0.1113 21 148 (166) 181 (181) 0.3325
Child healthcare services
 Immunizations 15 270 (290) 455 (463) 0.0642 18 287 (361) 307 (258) 0.7899
Family planning services
 Distributed male condoms 11 117 (211) 67 (94) 0.4948 14 68 (91) 24 (35) 0.1228
 Distributed female condoms 5 0 (0) 2 (2) 0.0628 9 0 (0) 6 (10) 0.0918*
 Family planning services 19 129 (190) 161 (403) 0.6912 20 54 (72) 66 (76) 0.5195
HIV/AIDS/STI services
 STIs patients 20 43 (126) 94 (84) 0.1802 19 2.0 (6) 103 (107) 0.0005**
 HIV tests for non-pregnant clients 24 55 (65) 104 (81) 0.0213** 21 97 (118) 101 (127) 0.8851
 HIV tests for pregnant women 24 40 (43) 119 (128) 0.0067** 18 101 (117) 135 (143) 0.4551
 HIV positive clients 19 3 (3) 2 (3) 0.0095** 19 2 (1.5) 2 (2) 0.6284
 Patients on PMTCT 3 1 (1) 8 (13) 0.4240 4 26 (49) 1 (1) 0.3858
 Patients on VCT 9 6 (6) 55 (81) 0.1164 8 1 (2) 62 (65) 0.0344**
Laboratory/radiological services
 Patients accessing X-ray 3 133 (231) 255 (241) 0.5696 3 0 (0) 120 (208) 0.4226
 Ultrasounds 3 42 (18) 94 (114) 0.5219 8 21 (36) 22 (22) 0.9261
 TB screenings 3 5 (4) 10 (16) 0.5596 8 26 (70) 5 (7) 0.3837
 Malarial tests 5 43 (76) 380 (236) 0.0174** 7 0 (0) 294 (219) 0.0120**
 General laboratory tests 5 81 (150) 576 (475) 0.0309** 7 0 (0) 611 (441) 0.0106**
General medical care services
 Circumcisions 15 3 (6) 8 (5) 0.0220** 14 4 (6) 11 (11) 0.0652*
 Major surgical procedures 4 8 (4) 21 (19) 0.2153 5 1 (2) 6 (7) 0.1783
 Minor surgical procedures 28 2 (4) 20 (21) 0.0000*** 29 0 (1) 21 (18) 0.0000***
  1. Source: Field Data Greater Accra and Western Regions (2014)
  2. Legend: aAll means have been rounded up to the nearest decimal point; HIV (Human immune-deficiency virus); AIDS
  3. (Acquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome); STI (Sexually transmitted infection); PMTCT (Prevention of mother to child transmission); VCT (Voluntary
  4. Counselling and testing); TB (Tuberculosis)
  5. Paired t-test statistically significant at *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.0001