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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and antibiotic use pattern in surgery in hospitals in Ghana

From: Antibiotic use in surgical units of selected hospitals in Ghana: a multi-centre point prevalence survey

Characteristics Number of surgical patients on admissionn = 540 Number of surgical patients on antibiotics
n = 382
Prevalence (95% CI) of antibiotic use amongst surgical patients Odds ratio (95% CI) Univariable analysis p-value Odds ratio (95% CI) Multivariable analysis Number of antibiotic prescriptions n = 636 [Number of prescriptions / persons on antibiotic]
Hospital type
 District Hospital 186 120 64.5 (56.0–73.1) 1.0    179 [1.49]
 Regional Hospital 100 84 84.0 (68.3–99.7) 2.9 (0.8–9.9) 0.08   166 [1.98]
 Tertiary Hospital 254 178 70.1 (64.8–75.3) 1.3 (0.8–2.0) 0.2   291 [1.63]
Surgical specialty
 Dental (+ MXF) Surgery 13 9 69.2 (52.2–86.3) 1.0    19 [2.1]
 Ear, Nose and Throat 8 7 87.5 (50.6–124.4) 3.1 (0.1–95.1) 0.5   10 [1.43]
 General Surgery 386 274 71.0 (61.3–80.7) 1.1 (0.4–2.7) 0.8   466 [1.70]
 Neurosurgery 24 15 62.5 (62.5–62.5) 0.7 (0.3–1.6) 0.4   26 [1.73]
 Ophthalmology 2 0 0.0    0 [0.00]
 Orthopedics and trauma 61 40 65.6 (62.1–69.1) 0.8 (0.4–1.9) 0.7   52 [1.30]
 Pediatric surgery 33 25 75.8 (67.7–83.8) 1.3 (0.6–3.4) 0.4   42 [1.68]
 Urology 13 12 92.3 (92.3–92.3) 5.3 (2.3–11.9) 0.001 5.0 (1.5–15.9) 21 [1.75]
Age group
 0–12 (Children) 82 62 75.6 (64.7–86.5) 1.0    111 [1.79]
 13–17 (Adolescents) 33 21 63.6 (41.2–86.1) 0.6 (0.2–1.5) 0.2   36 [1.71]
 18–29 (Young adult) 84 58 69.0 (61.6–76.5) 0.7 (0.4–1.4) 0.3   100 [1.72]
 30–39 (Thirties) 75 51 68.0 (49.6–86.4) 0.7 (0.4–1.3) 0.2   80 [1.57]
 40–64 (Middle age) 170 121 71.2 (64.0–78.4) 0.8 (0.4–1.5) 0.4   198 [1.64]
  > 65 (Old age) 96 69 71.9 (61.7–82.6) 0.8 (0.4–1.9) 0.6   111 [1.61]
Gender
 Male 340 243 71.5 (63.1–79.8) 1.0    397 [1.63]
 Female 200 139 69.5 (62.1–76.9) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 0.6   239 [1.72]
McCabe Score
 Non-fatal 497 356 71.6 (63.9–79.3) 1.0    594 [1.67]
 Rapidly fatal 9 6 66.7 (16.7–116.6) 0.8 (0.1–5.8) 0.8   8 [1.33]
 Ultimately fatal 34 20 58.8 (45.6–72.0) 0.6 (0.3–1.2) 0.1   34 [1.70]
Surgical procedure done
 No 278 175 63.1 (50.9–75.3) 1.0    293 [1.67]
 Yes 262 207 77.6 (72.1–85.0) 2.1 (1.5–3.1) 0.02 2.2 (1.0–4.6) 343 [1.66]
HAI documented
 No 478 323 67.6 (59.8–75.4) 1.0    522 [1.62]
 Yes 62 59 95.2 (86.8–103.6) 9.4 (1.5–60.3) 0.02 8.9 (1.4–56.5) 114 [1.93]
Types of infections
BSI 4 4 100.0     9 [2.25]
Pneumonia 7 7 100.0     18 [2.57]
SSI 36 33 91.7 (79.5–103.8)     61 [1.85]
UTI 7 7 100.0     11 [1.57]
Other 8 8 100.0     15 [1.88]
  1. MXF Maxillofacial, McCabe score: Classification of the severity of underlying medical conditions. Non-fatal disease (expected survival at least five years); ultimately fatal disease (expected survival between one and five years); rapidly fatal disease (expected death within one year); CI Confidence interval, HAI Healthcare associated infection, BSI Blood stream infection, SSI Surgical site infection, UTI Urinary tract infection