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Table 2 Adjusted and unadjusted independent variables significantly associated with perinatal deaths in Nigeria, 2008–2013

From: Community-and proximate-level factors associated with perinatal mortality in Nigeria: evidence from a nationwide household survey

Variables~ Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusteda,b aOR (95% CI)
Community-level factors
 Residence type
  Urban Ref  
  Rural 1.27 (1.10–1.47) 1.33 (1.11–1.60)
Proximate-level factors
 Mother’s age
  30–39 Ref Ref
   < 20 1.92 (1.53–2.42) 1.27 (0.91–1.78)
  20–29 1.08 (0.94–1.23) 0.96 (0.80–1.17)
  40–49 1.44 (1.19–1.74) 1.35 (1.06–1.73)
 Mother’s body mass index (MBMI)
  Normal (18.5 ≤ MBMI ≤24.9) Ref Ref
  Underweight (MBMI > 18.5) 0.85 (0.68–1.07) 0.77 (0.58–1.02)
  Overweight (25 ≤ MBMI ≤29.9) 1.03 (0.88–1.21) 1.12 (0.92–1.36)
  Obese (MBMI ≥30) 1.43 (1.17–1.75) 1.46 (1.13–1.89)
 Sex
  Female Ref Ref
  Male 1.43 (1.24–1.65) 1.45 (1.25–1.68)
 Mother’s perceived baby size at birth
  Average or larger Ref Ref
  Small or very small 1.92 (1.61–2.29) 1.92 (1.61–2.30)
 Birth rank and birth interval
  2nd or 3rd child, interval > 2 Ref Ref
  First child 1.95 (1.57–2.42) 1.81 (1.43–2.78)
  2nd or 3rd child, interval ≤ 2 1.76 (1.34–2.31) 1.76 (1.34–2.31)
  4th or more child, interval > 2 1.01 (0.81–1.26) 0.93 (0.73–1.19)
  4th or more child, interval ≤ 2 2.05 (1.62–2.61) 1.86 (1.44–2.41)
 Mode of delivery
  Non-caesarean Ref Ref
  Caesarean sectionc 3.15 (2.25–4.40) 2.85 (2.02–4.02)
  1. Variables that were associated with perinatal deaths; a Independent variables adjusted for: geopolitical zone, place of residence, wealth index, mother’s (marital status, education, age, body mass index, work status and desire for pregnancy), father’s education, child’s (sex, birth place, body size, mode of delivery, delivery assistance, birth order and birth interval, cooking fuel); CI, confidence interval; Ref, reference category. b Multiple births were not included in the analysis; aOR, adjusted odds ratio based on logistic regression; c Caesarean section is detailed as elective and emergency caesarean during the survey