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Table 1 PMR with 95% CI for each category of community-, socio-economic-, proximate- and environmental-level variables in Nigeria, 2008–2013

From: Community-and proximate-level factors associated with perinatal mortality in Nigeria: evidence from a nationwide household survey

Variables Number of pregnancies Perinataldeathsˇ Rate (95% CI)
Community-level factors
 Geopolitical Zone
  North-Central 4197 129 31 (25–36)
  North-East 5546 239 32 (38–48)
  North-West 11,606 475 41 (37–45)
  South-East 2718 95 35 (28–42)
  South-West 2847 101 36 (29–43)
  South-South 4208 158 38 (32–43)
 Residence typea
  Urban 10,803 349 32 (29–36)
  Rural 20,318 848 42 (39–45)
Socioeconomic-level factors
 Household wealth indexa
  Rich 5198 176 34 (29–39)
  Middle 11,303 403 36 (32–39)
  Poor 14,621 617 42 (39–46)
 Mother’s educationa
  Secondary or higher 9796 338 35 (31–38)
  Primary 5960 260 44 (38–49)
  No education 15,366 599 39 (36–42)
 Mother’s working status
  Working 19,963 749 38 (35–40)
  Not working 9795 377 38 (35–42)
 Mother’s marital status
  Currently married 29,803 1134 38 (36–40)
  Formerly/never married 1319 63 47 (36–59)
 Father’s education
  Secondary or higher 12,526 462 37 (33–40)
  Primary 5709 226 40 (34–45)
  No education 12,091 470 39 (35–42)
Proximate-level factors
 Mother’s agea
   < 20 1606 99 62 (49–74)
  30–39 11,522 389 34 (30–37)
  20–29 14,862 551 37 (34–40)
  40–49 3132 158 50 (42–58)
 Mother’s body mass index (MBMI)
  Normal (18.5 ≤ MBMI ≤24.9) 20,441 766 37 (35–40)
  Underweight (MBMI > 18.5) 2592 83 32 (25–39)
  Overweight (25 ≤ MBMI ≤29.9) 5408 202 37 (32–43)
  Obese (MBMI ≥30) 2397 138 58 (48–67)
 Wanted pregnancy at the time
  Wanted then 27,903 705 25 (23–27)
  Wanted later 2009 42 21 (15–27)
  No more 475 14 29 (14–45)
 Sex
  Female 15,238 341 22 (20–25)
  Male 15,488 460 30 (27–32)
 Mother’s perceived baby size at birth
  Average or larger 25,719 532 21 (19–22)
  Small or very small 4429 202 46 (39–52)
  Birth rank and birth interval
 First child 6119 221 36 (31–41)
  2nd or 3rd child, interval > 2 7237 137 19 (16–22)
  2nd or 3rd child, interval ≤ 2 2766 92 33 (27–40)
  4th or more child, interval > 2 10,781 202 19 (16–21)
  4th or more child, interval ≤ 2 3823 150 39 (33–46)
 Delivery assistance
  Healthcare professional 11,481 312 27 (24–30)
  Non-healthcare professional 11,054 245 22 (19–25)
 Mode of delivery
  Non-caesarean 29,819 747 25 (23–27)
  Caesarean section+ 577 42 73 (51–95)
 Place of delivery
  Health facility 10,869 287 26 (23–29)
  Home 19,537 470 24 (22–26)
Environmental-level factors
 Type of cooking fuel
  Non-solid fuel 5801 211 36 (31–41)
  Solid fuel 24,978 958 38 (36–41)
  1. NB: All perinatal mortality rate (PMR) estimates with 95% confidence interval (CI) were rounded to a whole number; ˇ Perinatal deaths, a combination of stillbirths and singleton newborn deaths; ~Rate, based on total number of deaths per 1000 (singleton live births + stillbirths); a The estimated PMR in the study differs from that reported by the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey because we excluded multiple births; +Caesarean section is detailed as elective and emergency caesarean in the survey