Skip to main content

Table 3 Mixed effects meta-regression analysis – effect of covariates on the prevalence of depression

From: Prevalence of depression among the elderly (60 years and above) population in India, 1997–2016: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Covariate Coefficient 95% CI SE Z P value
Study period (2007–2016) 0.02 −0.17, 0.21 0.096 0.23 0.82
Urban −0.08 −0.16, 0.006 0.043 −1.82 0.07
Unclassified −0.11 −0.47, 0.24 0.18 −0.61 0.54
Southern region − 0.07 − 0.22, 0.07 0.07 −1.04 0.30
North and Central region −0.31 −0.47, − 0.15 0.08 −3.87 0.0001
Western region −0.18 −0.35, − 0.01 0.086 −2.11 0.035
Probability sampling −0.14 −0.30, 0.02 0.08 −1.71 0.087
Unknown sampling methods 0.12 −0.07, 0.31 0.099 1.23 0.22
GDS 0.11 −0.07, 0.30 0.09 1.19 0.23
HDRS −0.09 −0.35, 0.17 0.13 −0.67 0.51
PHQ −0.026 −0.27, 0.22 0.13 −0.21 0.83
Others −0.006 −0.23, 0.22 0.12 −0.05 0.96
  1. Coefficient is for logit of proportion
  2. Dependent variable: prevalence of depression
  3. Reference categories of independent variables: time period 1997–2006, residence - rural, geographic region - east and north-east, sampling methods- non-probability sampling, screening tool - CES-D