Skip to main content

Table 2 Prevalence of depression in the elderlypopulation using random effects model by subgroup and sensitivity analyses

From: Prevalence of depression among the elderly (60 years and above) population in India, 1997–2016: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Category   No. of studies Pooled prevalence (95% CI) Cumulative Positives/cumulative sample size p-value in between group comparison
All studies Overall 56 34.4 (29.3–39.6) 7087/22005  
Subgroup
 Year of publication 2007–2016 53 34 (28.7–39.5) 6276/20172 0.3525
2006 and before 3 41.7 (26.8–57.5) 811/1833
 Setting Rural 28 37.8 (29.9–45.9) 4345/11600 0.2778
Urban 27 32.1 (26.1–38.5) 2736/10296
 Region South 26 39.8 (34.5–45.3) 3877/10374 0.0073
North and Central 15 21.6 (13.3–31.3) 1459/7449
East including North-east 6 47.9 (30.1–66.1) 447/1084
West 9 32.7 (21.1–45.5) 1304/3098
 State Andhra Pradesh 5 40.1 (32–48.5) 841/2190 < 0.001
Assam 1 17.3 (13.9–21.3) 69/400
Delhi 1 45.6 (39.5–51.8) 114/250
Gujrat 1 35.7 (25.5–47.4) 25/70
Haryana 3 28.6 (10.8–50.7) 826/2286
Himachal Pradesh 2 9.4 (7.4–11.5) 76/800
Jammu and Kashmir 1 7.9 (4.2–14.3) 9/114
Karnataka 11 33.1 (27.8–38.5) 1155/3466
Kerala 2 25.0 (21.4–28.9) 129/515
Madhya Pradesh 1 9.6 (6.3–14.4) 20/208
Maharashtra 8 32.3 (20–46.1) 1279/3028
Punjab 4 37.4 (20.1–56.6) 348/3138
Tamil Nadu 8 53.7 (38.9–68.2) 1752/4203
Uttar Pradesh 2 10.9 (8.3–13.6) 60/544
Uttarakhand 1 5.5 (2.5–11.5) 6/109
West Bengal 5 55.1 (50.5–59.7) 378/684
 EAG states EAG and Assam 5 11.3 (7.6–15.8) 155/1261 < 0.001
Non-EAG states† 25 34.3 (25.4–43.8) 3055/10370
South Indian states 26 39.8 (34.5–45.3) 3877/10374
 Sampling methods Probability 43 31.8 (26.4–37.4) 5069/17812 0.0475
Non-probability 6 38.4 (22.2–55.9) 1006/1935
Not known 7 47.7 (36.1–59.4) 1012/2258
 Instrument CES-D 3 39.5 (21.7–58.9) 1001/1934 < 0.001
GDS 41 37.9 (31.5–44.5) 4819/15030
HDRS 3 10.2 (6.5–14.6) 86/870
PHQ 4 19.7 (7.5–35.7) 722/2599
Others‡ 5 32.3 (21.8–43.8) 459/1572
 Type of instrument GDS 41 37.9 (31.5–44.5) 4819/15030 0.0291
Others than GDS 15 25.4 (17.1–34.6) 2268/6975
  1. †Non-EAG states excluding South Indian states; ‡ “Others” in instruments included MDIPC v2.2, Goldberg and Bridges Scale, and BDI (G)