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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies selected in the systematic review of the prevalence of depression in elderly population, India, 1997–2016

From: Prevalence of depression among the elderly (60 years and above) population in India, 1997–2016: a systematic review and meta-analysis

S.No Author, Year of Publication (study number) State/ Study Setting Sampling technique† Age (yrs) Screening tool Dementia patients excluded Combined Prevalence in % ‡ Prevalence in males,% § Prevalence in females,%¶ Quality Score
1 Abhishekh HA et al., 2013 Karnataka/
Rural
US ≥ 60 HDRS No 14.3 (10/70) 12.1 (4/33) 16.2 (6/37) 5
2 Ahmed MS et al, 2016 Karnataka/
Urban
SyRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 36.7 (312/850) 32.3 (132/409) 40.8 (180/441) 7
3 Arumugam B et al, 2013 (A) Tamil Nadu/Rural US ≥ 60 GDS – 30 No 79.5 (66/83) 66.7 (18/27) 85.7 (48/56) 4
4 Arumugam B et al, 2013 (B) Tamil Nadu/Urban US ≥ 60 GDS – 30 No 80 (72/90) 63.3 (19/30) 88.3 (53/60) 4
5 Arvind P et al.,
2004
Kerala/ Rural SyRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 24.7 (64/259) 18.5 (22/119) 30.0 (42/140) 8
6 Barua A et al., 2010 Karnataka/Rural SiRS ≥ 60 MDIPC v2.2 Yes 21.7 (132/609) 19.9 (43/216) 22.6 (89/393) 8
7 BayapareddyPM et al.,2012 Tamil Nadu/ Rural CRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 Yes 47 (376/800) 37.5 (150/400) 56.5 (226/400) 7
8 Behera P et al., 2016 Haryana/ Rural SiRS ≥ 60 GDS – 30 Yes 27.3 (108/395) 23.3 (40/172) 30.5 (68/223) 8
9 Bodhare TN et al, 2013 Andhra Pradesh/ Rural US ≥ 60 PHQ 9 No 44.7 (85/190) 3
10 Dasgupta A et al, 2013 West Bengal/Rural CS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 58.8 (50/85) 48.4 (15/31) 64.8 (35/54) 7
11 Dasgupta A et al, 2014 West Bengal/Urban StRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 46.9 (61/130) 36.1 (22/61) 56.5 (39/69) 7
12 Deshpande SS et al., 2011 Maharashtra/ Rural SyRS ≥ 65 GDS – 15 No 41.1 (74/180) 40.2 (37/92) 42.0 (37/88) 6
13 Dhar G et al., 2013 West Bengal/Urban SyRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 59.8 (122/204) 5
14 Dhuria M et al., 2014 Delhi/ Urban Not known ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 45.6 (114/250) 2
15 D’souza L et al., 2015 Karnataka/Urban Not known ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 51.9 (109/210) 33 (35/106) 71.2 (74/104) 4
16 Dumbray SS et al, 2014 Maharashtra/
Urban
CS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 30 (30/100) 5
17 Ganguli M et al., 1999 Haryana/ Rural Not known > 60 GDS – 30 Yes 46.4 (646/1391) 40.4 (294/727) 53 (352/664) 7
18 Goel PK et al., 2014 Uttar Pradesh/Urban SyRS ≥ 60 GDS – 30 No 9.4 (38/403) 9.7 (20/207) 9.2 (18/196) 7
19 Goyal A et al., 2014 (A) Punjab/ Rural Not known ≥ 60 GDS – 30 No 74.6 (44/59) 5
20 Goyal A et al., 2014 (B) Punjab/Urban Not known ≥ 60 GDS – 30 No 80.5 (33/41) 5
21 Gupta A et al., 2015 Uttar Pradesh/Urban MRS ≥ 60 GDS – 30 Yes 15.6 (22/141) 11 (11/100) 26.8 (11/41) 4
22 Gupta SK et al., 2012 Madhya Pradesh/ Urban SyRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 9.6 (20/208) 12.1 (11/91) 7.7 (9/117) 4
23 Ishikawa M et al, 2016 Jammu and Kashmir/ Rural PS ≥ 60 PHQ-2 No 7.9 (9/114) 4
24 Jain RK et al., 2007 Maharashtra/
Urban
LQS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 45.9 (90/196) 38 (38/100) 54.2 (52/96) 7
25 Jariwala V et al.,2010 Gujrat/Urban CS ≥ 60 BDI (G) No 35.7 (25/70) 5
26 Jonas Jost B et al, 2014 Maharashtra/
Rural
CS ≥ 60 CES-D No 58.5 (802/1370) 48.1 (311/647) 67.9 (491/723) 8
27 Kamble SV et al, 2009 Maharashtra/
Rural
SyRS ≥ 60 Goldberg & Bridges scale No 31.4 (155/494) 24.6 (57/232) 37.4 (98/262) 8
28 Kumar S et al., 2013 Andhra Pradesh/ Rural CRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 Yes 47 (188/400) 37.5 (75/200) 56.5 (113/200) 7
29 Mathias K et al. 2015 Uttarakhand/
Unclassified
2 s CRS ≥ 60 PHQ 9 No 5.5 (6/109) 7
30 Maulik S et al., 2012 West Bengal/Rural CRS ≥ 60 GDS- 15
(Bengali)
No 53.7 (44/82) 33.3 (9/27) 63.6 (35/55) 7
31 Nair SS et al., 2013 Karnataka/ Urban SiRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 32.4 (59/182) 32.0 (24/75) 32.7 (35/107) 3
32 Nandi PS et al., 1997 West Bengal/Rural US ≥ 60 WHO TRS Yes 55.2 (101/183) 37.6 (32/85) 70.4 (69/98) 4
33 Patil SD et al., 2015 Karnataka/Rural SyRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 29.4 (114/388) 28 (37/132) 30.1 (77/256) 7
34 Payghan BS et al, 2013 Karnataka/Urban StRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 41.7 (90/216) 38.5 (40/104) 44.6 (50/112) 7
35 Pilania M et al., 2016 Haryana/Rural 2 s CRS ≥ 60 GDS – 30 No 14.4 (72/500) 8.7 (20/231) 19.3 (52/269) 7
36 Pongiya UD et al, 2011 Tamil Nadu/
Rural
Not known ≥ 60 CES-D No 22 (20/91) 28.3 (13/46) 15.6 (7/45) 3
37 Poongothai S et al, 2009 Tamil Nadu/
Urban
MRS ≥ 60 PHQ 12 Yes 28.5 (622/2186) 25.9(296/1142) 31.2 (326/1044) 8
38 Pracheth R et al., 2013 Karnataka/ Urban SyRS ≥ 60 GDS – 30 No 29.4 (64/218) 25.9 (21/81) 31.4 (43/137) 7
39 Radhakrishnan S et al., 2013 Tamil Nadu/
Rural
SiRS ≥ 60 GDS – 30 No 58.8 (235/400) 45.2 (76/168) 68.5 (159/232) 7
40 Raul A et al., 2013 Maharashtra/ Urban Not known ≥ 60 MDIPC v2.2 No 21.3 (46/216)
41 Saikia AM et al., 2016 Assam/Urban CRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 Yes 17.3 (69/400) 14.5 (27/186) 19.6 (42/214) 7
42 Sandhya GI et al., 2010 Kerala/ Rural StRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 25.4 (65/256) 29.1 (30/103) 22.9 (35/153) 7
43 Sanjay TV et al., 2014 Karnataka/Urban SiRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 (Kannada) No 36 (36/100) 29.5 (13/44) 41.1 (23/56) 7
44 Santosh A et al., 2014 Karnataka/Urban SyRS ≥ 60 GDS No 33.3 (50/150) 31.1 (14/45) 34.3 (36/105) 7
45 Seby K et al., 2011 Maharashtra/
Urban
US ≥ 65 GDS – 15 Yes 19.3 (39/202) 4
46 Sengupta P et al., 2015 (A) Punjab/ Rural US ≥ 60 GDS – 15 Yes 7.3 (91/1248) 5.7 (33/579) 8.7 (58/669) 8
47 Sengupta P et al., 2015 (B) Punjab/Urban US ≥ 60 GDS – 15 Yes 10.1 (180/1790) 7.5 (60/805) 12.2 (120/985) 8
48 Sharma K et al., 2016 (A) Himachal Pradesh/ Rural 2 s CRS ≥ 60 HDRS No 7.3 (29/400) 7
49 Sharma K et al., 2016 (B) Himachal Pradesh/ Urban 2 s CRS ≥ 60 HDRS No 11.8 (47/400) 7
50 Sinha SP et al., 2013 Tamil Nadu/
Rural
US ≥ 60 GDS – 15 Yes 42.7 (44/103) 29.3 (17/58) 60 (27/45) 5
51 Suganathan S et al, 2016 Tamilnadu/Rural CRS ≥ 60 GDS No 70.4 (317/450) 56.8 (100/176) 79.2 (217/274) 7
52 Sundru M et al., 2013 (A) Andhra Pradesh/ Rural SiRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 36 (216/600) 6
53 Sundru M et al., 2013 (B) Andhra Pradesh/ Urban SiRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 27.3 (164/600) 6
54 Swarnalatha N et al., 2013 Andhra Pradesh/ Rural SiRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 47 (188/400) 37.5 (75/200) 56.5 (113/200) 7
55 Thirthahalli C et al, 2014 Karnataka/Urban StRS ≥ 60 CES-D Yes 37.8 (179/473) 28.8 (40/139) 41.6(139/334) 8
56 Yadav SP et al., 2013 Maharashtra/
Urban
SyRS ≥ 60 GDS – 15 No 15.9 (43/270) 14 (18/129) 17.7 (25/141) 6
  1. †US- Universal Sampling (all eligible participants selected); SyRS – Systematic Random Sampling; SiRS –Simple Random Sample; CRS – Cluster Random Sampling; StRS – Stratified Random Sampling; CS – Convenience Sampling; PS – Purposive Sampling; LQS – Lots Quality Sampling; MRS – Multistage Random Sampling; 2 s CRS – Two stage cluster random sampling
  2. ‡No. of positive patients/ Total participants; § No. of positive males / Total males; ¶ No. of positive females / Total females