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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in this meta-analysis

From: How does hard-to-reach status affect antiretroviral therapy adherence in the HIV-infected population? Results from a meta-analysis of observational studies

Author Publication year Study period Region/Country Study design Population description HTR status Adherence threshold (%) Adherence measure Observation period Quality assessment
Aloisi MS [41] 2002 1997–1999 Italy Cohort HIV-infected subjects who had never received antiretroviral therapy DU 100 SR 6 months Moderate
Avery AK [42] 2013 2008–2011 USA Cross- sectional Participants who were previously diagnosed HIV+ HL 90 SR 1 week High
Biello KB [43] 2016 2012 Latin America Cross- sectional Men who have sex with men who reported being paid for sex with another man in the past year SW 100 SR 1 month Moderate
Bijker R [44] 2017 2007–2013 Asia Cohort HIV-infected adults starting first-line ART DU 95 SR 6 months High
Braitstein P [45] 2006 1996–2000 Canada Cohort Individuals used triple combination ART as their first HIV therapy and had documented HCV serology DU 95 PR 1 year High
Cohn SE [46] 2008 2002–2005 USA Cohort HIV-infected women between 20 and 34 weeks’ gestation DU 100 SR 4 days or 3 months Moderate
Cohn SE [47] 2011 1997–1999 USA Cross- sectional HIV-infected subjects without prior Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and with documented immune reconstitution DU 100 SR 2 days High
de Boni RB [48] 2016 2012–2013 Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru Cross- sectional Individuals receiving care at HIV clinics DU 100 SR 1 week High
de Jong BC [49] 2005 2001 USA Cross- sectional Patients within a public health care system for HIV/AIDS DU 100 SR 4 weeks High
Duff PK [50] 2017 2014–2017 Canada Cohort Women living with HIV DU 95 SR 3 to 4 weeks High
Gebo KA [51] 2003 1999–2000 USA Cross- sectional Consecutive HIV-infected patients taking at least 1 antiretroviral medication DU 90 SR 2 weeks Moderate
Gordillo V [52] 1999 1997–1998 Spain Cross- sectional HIV-infected patients who were on treatment with antiretroviral drugs DU 90 SR and pill count 1 week High
Hicks PL [53] 2007 2003 USA Cross- sectional HIV patients on HAART in primary care DU 95 SR 2 weeks Moderate
Jin H [54] 2018 2013–2017 USA Cross- sectional HIV-positive men who have sex with men who had biologically confirmed, recent methamphetamine use HL 90 SR 1 month Moderate
Johnson MO [55] 2003 2000–2002 USA Cross- sectional HIV-positive adults taking ART DU, HL 90 SR 3 days Moderate
Joseph B [56] 2015 1996–2012 Canada Cohort HIV-infected people who use illicit drugs in a setting of universal no-cost HIV/AIDS treatment HL, DU, SW 95 PR 6 months High
King RM [57] 2012 2007–2009 USA Cross- sectional Persons living with HIV/AIDS who smoke DU 100 SR 4 days Moderate
Krusi A [58] 2010 1996–2007 Canada Cohort HIV-positive injection drug users DU 95 PR 6 months High
Mohanned H [59] 2004 1999–2001 USA Cohort Convenience sample of HIV-infected subjects seen at outpatient HIV clinics DU 100 SR 1 week High
O’Neil CR [60] 2012 2007–2010 Canada Cohort HIV-positive persons who have accessed antiretroviral therapy DU 95 PR 1 year High
Palepu A [61] 2004 1997–2002 Canada Cohort Participants who were HIV-infected, naive to HAART and who were prescribed treatment DU 100 PR 6 months High
Roux P [62] 2011 2006–2008 France Cohort HIV/HCV coinfected patients on ART DU 100 SR 4 days Moderate
Shannon K [63] 2005 2002–2004 Canada Cohort HIV-infected persons DU 95 PR 6 months Moderate
Sharpe TT [64] 2004 1997–2000 USA Cross- sectional HIV-infected women DU 100 SR not reported Moderate
Stone VE [65] 2001 1993–1995 USA Cross- sectional Women living with HIV DU 100 SR 3 days Moderate
Teixeira C [66] 2013 2006–2008 Brazil Cohort HIV-positive patients with no previous ART DU 95 SR 1 month High
Tucker JS [67] 2003 1997–1998 USA Cohort People with known HIV infection and made at least one patient care visit DU 100 SR 1 week High
Turner BJ [68] 2000 1993–1997 USA Cohort Postpartum HIV-infected women DU 80 PR > 2 months High
Wilson TE [69] 2002 1998–1999 USA Cohort HIV-positive women DU 95 SR 6 months Moderate
  1. Abbreviations: HTR hard-to-reach, DU drug users, HL homelessness, SW sex workers, SR self-reporting, PR pharmacy refills