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Table 4 Perceived Health and Economic Impacts of Tax in Seattle, by Race/Ethnicity

From: Perceptions of the possible health and economic impacts of Seattle’s sugary beverage tax

  Non-Hispanic Whitesa
(N = 588)
Non-Hispanic Blacksa
(N = 60)
Non-Hispanic Asiansa
(N = 66)
Non-Hispanic Other Racea,b (N = 78) Hispanics (N = 56)a p value
  % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI)  
Opinion on Taxc
 Approve 64% (59, 68%) 46% (33, 60%) 49% (36, 62%) 53% (41, 65%) 53% (38, 68%) 0.17
 Disapprove 33% (28, 37%) 49% (36, 63%) 45% (32, 58%) 42% (31, 55%) 42% (28, 57%)  
 Don’t know 3.9% (2.5, 6.1%) 4.3% (1.0, 17%) 6.4% (2.4, 16%) 4.4% (1.6, 12%) 5.1% (1.3, 18%)  
Child Well Beingd
 Tax will improve child health and wellbeing 61% (57, 66%) 46% (33, 61%) 59% (46, 71%) 44% (33, 57%) 60% (45, 73%) 0.18
 Tax will not improve child health and wellbeing 35% (31, 40%) 44% (31, 58%) 36% (25, 50%) 51% (38, 63%) 39% (26, 54%)  
 Don’t know 3.3% (2.0, 5.3%) 10% (3.6, 23%) 4.5% (1.5, 13%) 4.9% (1.4, 16%) 1.2% (0.17, 8.2%)  
Public Healthd
 Tax will improve public health 59% (54, 63%) 42% (29, 57%) 55% (42, 68%) 42% (30, 54%) 52% (38, 67%) 0.095
 Tax will not improve public health 38% (33, 42%) 48% (34, 62%) 39% (27, 52%) 51% (39, 64%) 48% (33, 62%)  
 Don’t know 3.6% (2.3, 5.6%) 10% (3.7, 24%) 5.6% (2.1, 14%) 6.8% (2.6, 17%) 0% (0, 0%)  
Cross-Border Shoppingd
 Participant will not cross-border shop 78% (74, 82%) 77% (63, 87%) 77% (64, 86%) 82% (70, 90%) 68% (52, 80%) 0.029
 Participant will cross-border shop 20% (17, 25%) 13% (7.0, 25%) 17% (10, 29%) 17% (10, 29%) 29% (17, 45%)  
 Don’t know 1.7% (0.91, 3.0%) 10% (3.6, 23%) 5.8% (2.2, 15%) 1.0% (0.10, 6.7%) 3.3% (0.80, 13%)  
Seattle's Economyd
 Tax will have a positive effect on the economy 48% (43, 53%) 49% (35, 63%) 46% (33, 59%) 44% (32, 56%) 50% (35, 64%) 0.81
 Tax will have a negative effect on the economy 36% (31, 40%) 26% (16, 39%) 39% (27, 53%) 34% (23, 47%) 35% (23, 51%)  
 Don’t know 16% (13, 20%) 25% (14, 39%) 15% (7.8, 27%) 22% (13, 34%) 15% (7.7, 27%)  
Small Businessesd
 Tax will not negatively affect small businesses 53% (49, 58%) 45% (32, 59%) 51% (38, 64%) 42% (31, 55%) 60% (44, 73%) 0.036
 Tax will negatively affect small businesses 40% (35, 44%) 38% (25, 52%) 33% (22, 46%) 48% (36, 60%) 38% (25, 53%)  
 Don’t know 7.1% (5.3, 9.5%) 17% (8.6, 31%) 17% (9.1, 29%) 10% (4.3, 21%) 2.4% (0.59, 9.3%)  
Job Lossd
 Tax will not result in job loss 67% (62, 71%) 61% (46, 73%) 63% (50, 75%) 65% (52, 75%) 75% (60, 86%) 0.022
 Tax will result in job loss 25% (21, 29%) 22% (13, 34%) 16% (9.0, 29%) 19% (11, 31%) 19% (10, 34%)  
 Don’t know 8.2% (6.2, 11%) 18% (9.1, 31%) 20% (12, 33%) 16% (9.0, 27%) 5.3% (1.6, 16%)  
Family Financesd
 Tax will not negatively affect family finances 82% (79, 86%) 63% (48, 75%) 73% (60, 83%) 81% (71, 88%) 67% (51, 79%) <0.001*
 Tax will negatively affect family finances 16% (13, 20%) 31% (20, 45%) 16% (8.0, 27%) 14% (8.0, 24%) 27% (15, 43%)  
 Don’t know 1.3% (0.70, 2.4%) 6.4% (1.9, 20%) 11% (5.3, 22%) 4.6% (1.7,12%) 5.6% (1.8, 17%)  
Impact on Low-Income People and People of Color
 Tax will positively impact people with low-income/people of color 50% (45, 54%) 54% (40, 68%) 37% (25, 50%) 46% (34, 59%) 49% (34, 64%) 0.48
 Tax will negatively impact people with low-income/people of color 40% (36, 45%) 32% (20, 46%) 48% (35, 61%) 42% (31, 55%) 44% (30, 59%)  
 Don’t know 10% (7.8, 13%) 14% (6.6, 26%) 15% (7.9, 27%) 11% (5.3, 22%) 7.3% (2.7, 19%)  
Individual Choiced
 People will have the choice to drink the beverages they want 74% (70, 78%) 64% (49, 76%) 63% (50, 75%) 71% (59, 81%) 63% (48%,7 6%) 0.32
 People will not have the choice to drink the beverages they want 23% (20, 27%) 33% (22, 47%) 32% (21, 46%) 24% (15, 36%) 37% (24, 52%)  
 Don’t know 2.8 (1.7, 4.4%) 3.0% (0.42, 18%) 4.5% (1.5, 13%) 4.7% (1.3, 15%) 0% (0.0, 0.0%)  
  1. CI confidence interval
  2. aValues are rounded to two significant digits. Missing data: ethnicity (n = 3 [individuals who responded “don’t know”]); opinion on tax (n = 1); cross-border shopping (n = 4), small business (n = 1); job loss (n = 1); impact on people with low-income/people of color (n = 4); individual choice (n = 1)
  3. bNative Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders, American Indian and Alaska Natives, and those reporting two or more races are categorized as non-Hispanic Other
  4. cResponses included: strongly disapprove, somewhat disapprove, somewhat approve, strongly approve, don’t know. These categories are collapsed into: approve, disapprove, don’t know
  5. dParticipants were read two statements and asked to indicate if the first statement was much closer, the first statement was somewhat closer, the second statement was much closer, or the second statement was somewhat closer. There was also an option to report “don’t know” or “refused” for each of the questions. These categories are collapsed into: the first statement was closer, the second statement was closer or don’t know
  6. *Denotes statistically significant difference in participants’ response to all three response categories (agree, disagree, don’t know), comparing all races to each other, after considering multiple comparisons, using the Holm-Bonferroni Sequential Correction (global p < 0.01). Statistical significance estimated using a Chi-squared test