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Table 3 Perceived Positive Impacts of the Tax, by Income Level and Race/Ethnicity

From: Perceptions of the possible health and economic impacts of Seattle’s sugary beverage tax

  Perceived Positive Impacts of the Sugary Beverage Tax Unadjusted Perceived Positive Impacts of Sugary Beverage Tax1   Adjusted Perceived Positive Impacts of Sugary Beverage Tax1,2  
Mean Score (CI) β (95% CI) p value β (95% CI) p value
Income Level  
 <260% FPL 1.9 (1.3, 2.4) −1.4 (−2.2, −0.67) <0.001* − 0.98 (− 1.8, − 0.19) 0.015
 ≥260% FPL 3.3 (2.8, 3.8) reference   reference  
Race/Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White 3.0 (2.5, 3.5) reference 0.494 reference 0.854
 Non-Hispanic Black/African American 2.1 (0.93, 3.3) −0.84 (−2.1, 0.46)   −0.13 (−1.5, 1.2)  
 Non-Hispanic Asian 2.5 (1.2, 3.8) −0.51 (−1.8, 0.86)   −0.50 (− 1.8, 0.84)  
 Non-Hispanic Other3 2.2 (1.0, 3.3) −0.83 (−2.0, 0.40)   −0.63 (−1.9, 0.65)  
 Hispanic 2.3 (0.70, 3.8) −0.71 (−2.3, 0.93)   0.10 (−1.5, 1.7)  
Constant   3.0 (2.5, 3.5)   4.4 (2.3, 6.5)  
  1. CI confidence interval
  2. 1Estimated using linear regression models with robust standard errors. Compared to the reference population, a lower score can be interpreted as a less positive perception of tax impacts
  3. 2In addition to mutually adjusting for income and race/ethnicity, models control for education, sex, age, political affiliation
  4. 3People who are Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, American Indian and Alaska Natives, or two or more races are categorized as non-Hispanic Other
  5. 4Global p values that compare all race/ethnicities to each other
  6. * Perceived positive impacts of sugary beverages among lower-income participants is statistically significantly different from perceived positive impacts of sugary beverages among higher-income participants, after considering multiple comparisons, using the Holm-Bonferroni Sequential Correction (p < 0.01)