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Table 2 Perceived Health and Economic Impacts of Tax in Seattle Overall and by Income Level

From: Perceptions of the possible health and economic impacts of Seattle’s sugary beverage tax

  Overall < 260% FPL ≥ 260% FPL p value
(N = 851)a,b (N = 395)a (N = 456)a
% (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI)  
Opinion on Taxb
 Approve 59% (55, 63%) 52% (46, 58%) 63% (58, 68%) 0.021
 Disapprove 37% (33, 41%) 43% (37, 48%) 33% (28, 38%)  
 Don’t know 4.4% (3.0, 6.3%) 5.4% (3.2, 9.0%) 3.8% (2.3, 6.2%)  
Child Well Beingc
 Tax will improve child health and wellbeing 59% (55, 63%) 53% (47, 59%) 62% (57, 67%) 0.021
 Tax will not improve child health and wellbeing 37% (34, 41%) 41% (36, 47%) 35% (30, 40%)  
 Don’t know 3.9% (2.6, 5.6%) 5.8% (3.5, 9.5%) 2.8% (1.6, 4.9%)  
Public Healthc
 Tax will improve public health 56% (52, 60%) 48% (42, 53%) 61% (55, 66%) <0.001*
 Tax will not improve public health 40% (36, 44%) 46% (40, 52%) 37% (32, 42%)  
 Don’t know 4.3% (3.0, 6.1%) 5.4% (3.2, 9.0%) 2.9% (1.6, 5.0%)  
Seattle’s Economyc
 Tax will have a positive effect on the economy 47% (44, 51%) 44% (38, 50%) 50% (44, 55%) 0.31
 Tax will have a negative effect on the economy 35% (32, 39%) 37% (31, 43%) 35% (30, 40%)  
 Don’t know 17% (15, 20%) 19% (15, 24%) 16% (13, 20%)  
Cross-Border Shoppingc
 Participant will not cross-border shop 77% (74, 80%) 72% (67, 77%) 80% (76, 84%) <0.001*
 Participant will cross-border shop 20% (17, 23%) 21% (17, 27%) 19% (15, 24%)  
 Don’t know 2.9% (1.8, 4.5%) 6.1% (3.7, 9.9%) 1.0% (0.39, 2.4%)  
Small Businessesc
 Tax will not negatively affect small businesses 52% (48, 56%) 47% (42, 53%) 55% (50, 60%) 0.096
 Tax will negatively affect small businesses 39% (35, 43%) 42% (36, 47%) 37% (32, 42%)  
 Don’t know 9.0% (7.0, 11%) 11% (8.0, 15%) 7.7% (5.4, 11%)  
Job Lossc
 Tax will not result in job loss 66% (62, 70%) 58% (53, 64%) 71% (66, 75%) <0.001*
 Tax will result in job loss 23% (20, 26%) 26% (21, 31%) 21% (17, 26%)  
 Don’t know 11% (8.7, 13%) 16% (12, 21%) 7.9% (5.6, 11%)  
Family Financesc
 Tax will not negatively affect family finances 79% (75, 82%) 68% (62, 73%) 85% (81, 88%) <0.001*
 Tax will negatively affect family finances 18% (15, 21%) 25% (21, 30%) 14% (10, 18%)  
 Don’t know 3.6% (2.3, 5.4%) 6.9% (4.4, 11%) 1.6% (0.63, 3.9%)  
Impact on People with Low-income and People of Colorc
 Tax will positively impact people with low-income/people of color 48% (44, 52%) 44% (38, 49%) 50% (45, 56%) 0.18
 Tax will negatively impact people with low-income/people of color 41% (37, 45%) 43% (38, 49%) 40% (35, 45%)  
 Don’t know 11% (8.7, 13%) 13% (9.4, 17%) 10% (7.2, 13%)  
Individual Choicec
 People will have the choice to drink the beverages they want 71% (67, 74%) 64% (59, 70%) 75% (70, 79%) 0.014
 People will not have the choice to drink the beverages they want 26% (23, 30%) 32% (27, 37%) 23% (19, 28%)  
 Don’t know 3.0% (1.9, 4.5%) 3.9% (2.1, 7.2%) 2.4% (1.4, 4.2%)  
  1. CI confidence interval, FPL Federal poverty line
  2. aValues are rounded to two significant digits. Missing data: opinion on tax (n = 1); cross-border shopping (n = 4), small business (n = 1); job loss (n = 1); impact on low-income people/people of color (n = 4); individual choice (n = 1)
  3. bResponses included: strongly disapprove, somewhat disapprove, somewhat approve, strongly approve, don’t know. These categories are collapsed into: approve, disapprove, don’t know
  4. cParticipants were read two statements and asked to indicate if the first statement was much closer, the first statement was somewhat closer, the second statement was much closer, or the second statement was somewhat closer. There was also an option to report “don’t know” or “refused” for each of the questions. These categories are collapsed into: the first statement was closer, the second statement was closer or don’t know
  5. *Denotes statistically significant difference in participants’ response to all three response categories (agree, disagree, don’t know), comparing lower-income to higher-income participants after considering multiple comparisons, using the Holm-Bonferroni Sequential Correction (p < 0.01). Statistical significance estimated using a Chi-squared test