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Table 4 Mixed-effects regression of physical activity, PedsQL and expenditure on physical activity (£) of 2–4-year-old children

From: Cross-sectional analysis of physical activity in 2–4-year-olds in England with paediatric quality of life and family expenditure on physical activity

Unadjusted models Physical activity (Light, moderate and vigorous) MVPA (Moderate and vigorous)
Coefficient 95% CI p-value1 Trend test2 Coefficient 95% CI p-value2 Trend testa
Covariate
PedsQL Physical Functioning score (scale 0–100)
 Reference group: 50.00–87.50   
 Tertile 2: 87.51–93.75 11.0 −8.0, 28.4 0.27   5.7 0.4, 11.0 0.04  
 Tertile 3: 93.76–100 8.8 −7.7, 25.3 0.29 0.29 4.5 −0.1, 9.5 0.06 0.06
PedsQL Psychosocial Functioning score (scale 0–100)
 Reference group: 51.92–80.77   
 Quartile 2: 80.68–86.54 13.2 −6.6, 32.9 0.19   3.3 −2.6, 9.1 0.28  
 Quartile 3: 86.55–92.31 12.3 − 6.6, 31.3 0.20   5.0 −.6, 10.7 0.08  
 Quartile 4: 92.32–100 1.6 −18.2, 21.3 0.88 0.76 2.4 −3.5, 8.2 0.43 0.28
Total weekly expenditure on physical activity (£)3
 Reference group: 0.00–2.25   
 Quartile 2: 2.26–7.20 −12.1 −33.2, 9.0 0.26   0.3 −6.1, 6.7 0.94  
 Quartile 3: 7.21–16.70 − 6.0 −26.6, 14.6 0.57   −1.0 −7.2, 5.2 0.75  
 Quartile 4: 16.71–47.15 −0.5 −21.8, 20.9 0.96 0.91 −0.2 −6.6, 6.2 0.95 0.85
  1. 1 p-values for difference between each tertile/quartile and the reference group
  2. 2 p-value for trend test across tertiles or quartiles
  3. aMinutes on non-nursery days were used under the assumption that spending on physical activity for the 2–4-year-old would occur on non-nursery days