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Table 2 Relationship of women’s comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude towards PLWHAs with their SES and autonomy from PDHS 2012–2013 (n = 13,558)

From: Determinants of overall knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS transmission among ever-married women in Pakistan: evidence from the Demographic and Health Survey 2012–13

Characteristics Women’s comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge Women’s attitude towards PLWHA
High knowledge % Low knowledge% p-value* Positive attitude % Negative attitude % p-value*
Regions/Provinces
 Punjab 59.5 69.8 < 0.01 62.6 62.9 0.43
 Sindh 27.3 17.2   24.3 23.9  
 Baluchistan 9.3 11.1 9.9 9.8  
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 2.6 1.2 1.9 2.4  
 Gilgit Baltistan 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3
 Islamabad 1.1 0.5 1.1 0.7
Geographical classification
 Urban 60.2 44.8 < 0.01 56.2 54.1 0.11
 Rural 39.8 55.2   43.8 45.9  
Respondents age
 15–24 years 14.6 19.0 < 0.01 16.9 15.1 < 0.01
 25–34 years 44.8 41.6   45.8 41.2  
 35 years and above 40.6 39.4 37.3 43.7  
Respondents educational status
 No formal schooling 20.6 34.5 < 0.01 21.4 29.6 < 0.01
 Primary 16.9 23.8   17.2 21.4  
 Secondary 36.2 31.0 35 34.0  
 Higher 26.3 10.7 26.4 15.1  
Respondents occupation
 Unemployed 79.7 77.4 < 0.01 78.1 80.1 < 0.01
 Professional/Managerial 14.3 11.6   15 11.5  
 Agriculture 1.7 4.1 2.1 2.9  
 Unskilled workers 4.3 6.8 4.8 5.5  
Husbands educational status
 No formal schooling 13.9 20.5 < 0.01 13.7 18.8 < 0.01
 Primary 11.1 15.6   11.8 13.4  
 Secondary 40.6 43.7 42.3 40.7  
 Higher 34.4 20.2 32.3 27.1  
Husbands employment status
 Unemployed 2.1 2.4 < 0.01 2.3 2.0 < 0.01
 Professional/Managerial 50.1 40.9   50.5 43.1  
 Agriculture 8.5 10.8 8.2 10.3  
 Unskilled workers 39.4 46.0 38.9 44.6  
Exposure to mass media
 Yes 94.6 89.7 < 0.01 94.5 91.3 < 0.01
 No 5.4 10.3   5.5 8.7  
Wealth index
 Richest 48.7 26.6 < 0.01 45.1 37.5 < 0.01
 Richer 27 33.5   27.2 31.1  
 Middle 14.9 24.3 17.6 18.3  
 Poorer 7.0 11.6 7.7 9.4  
 Poorest 2.4 4.1 2.4 3.7
Respondents’ autonomy
 High autonomy 64 58.9 < 0.01 62.8 62 0.53
 Low autonomy 36 41.1   37.2 38  
Respondents’ attitudes towards wife beating
 Disagree on wife beating 80.2 69.9 < 0.01 80.1 72.9 < 0.01
 Agree on wife beating 19.8 30.1   19.9 27.1  
  1. * Chi-square analysis was applied