Skip to main content

Table 3 Multiple logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, life style and biological characteristics associated with eGFR< 60 in the absence of hypertension, diabetes and proteinuria

From: Prevalence and risk factors for impaired kidney function in the district of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional population-representative survey in those at risk of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology

Variable Males Females
N Adjusted Odds Ratio 95% CI p value N Adjusted Odds Ratio 95% CI p value
Age 1037 1.1 1.08 1.14 < 0.001 2314 1.1 1.1 1.1 < 0.001
Number of years of education in schools and in higher education institutes 1037 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.07 2314 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.16
Study area
 Area 1 190 1.0     439 1.0    
 Area 2 236 2.6 1.0 6.7 0.04 453 2.8 1.2 6.8 0.02
 Area 3 219 2.5 1.0 6.1 0.05 431 1.1 0.4 2.9 0.92
 Area 4 188 3.9 1.6 9.5 0.003 484 3.5 1.4 8.5 0.006
 Area 5 204 3.5 1.4 8.8 0.007 507 2.2 0.9 5.3 0.08
History of CKD among parents or siblings
 Yes 345 2.4 1.4 4.1 0.001 725 1.8 1.1 3.0 0.02
 No 690 1.0    1589 .01    
Occupation
 Ever occupied in any farming and duration
  No farming 179 1.0     829 1.0    
  Part time farming for < 10 yrs 145 1.4 0.3 6.8 0.65 157 1.0 0.3 4.0 0.97
  Part time farming for ≥10 yrs 296 2.0 0.6 7.0 0.28 253 1.4 0.6 3.3 0.40
  Full time farming for < 10 yrs 57 0.4 0.0 2.1 0.30 291 0.3 0.0 2.1 0.20
  Full time farming for ≥10 yrs 360 2.1 0.6 7.8 0.25 784 1.5 0.7 3.3 0.34
 Use of fertilizers/ Weedicides/ Pesticides
  Yes 739 0.9 0.4 1.9 0.85 699 0.6 0.3 1.0 0.05
  No 298 1.0    1615 1.0    
Life style factors
 Ever smoking
  Yes 523 1.9 1.1 3.2 0.02 16 3.1 0.5 19.7 0.24
  No 514 1.0    2298 1.0    
 Alcohol ever use
  Yes 744 0.8 0.4 1.4 0.38 43 1.5 0.3 6.8 0.57
  No 293 1.0    2271 1.0    
 Deep-wells as the drinking water source
  Yes 793 0.5 0.2 1.4 0.20 1721 0.5 0.2 1.3 0.18
  No 244 1.0    593 1.0    
 Shallow wells as the drinking water source
  Yes 84 0.4 0.1 1.3 0.12 169 0.5 0.2 1.9 0.34
  No 953 1.0    2145 1.0    
 Tube well as the drinking water source
  Yes 104 0.8 0.3 2.1 0.70 239 0.8 0.3 2.1 0.70
  No 933 1.0    2075 1.0    
 Amount of water consumed per day
  Less than 3 l 407 1.0    0.06 1524 1.0    0.28
  3 or more liters 630 1.7 1.0 2.8 790 1.3 0.8 2.3  
 Work outside exposed to the sun
  Less than 20 h per week 458 1.0    0.29 1698 1.0    0.87
  20 h or more per week 579 0.8 0.4 1.3 616 1.0 0.6 1.9  
 Snake bite (any snake)
  Yes 82 1.7 0.8 3.4 0.17 92 1.8 0.7 4.7 0.22
  No 955 1.0    2222 1.0    
Biological factors
  Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 1037 1.0 0.9 1.1 0.78 2314 1.1 1.0 1.2 0.11
  Body fat % 1037 1.0 1.0 1.1 0.35 2314 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.22
  Body water % 1037 1.1 1.0 1.2 0.09 2314 1.0 0.9 1.1 0.58