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Table 2 Major events regarding HPV vaccination in Japan

From: Newspaper coverage before and after the HPV vaccination crisis began in Japan: a text mining analysis

2009 October Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare approves manufacture and sale of Cervarix
2010 November Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and municipalities begin subsidizing costs of HPV vaccination
2013 March The Asahi Shimbun reports a case of severe adverse effects to the HPV vaccine, and media continue coverage
  Press conference by organization of alleged victims of HPV vaccines held for the first time
April Free HPV vaccination based on public expenditure system based on the immunization law starts
June Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare suspends proactive recommendation of HPV vaccination
2014 January Expert opinion review meeting in Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare states the cause of symptoms after HPV vaccination is a psychosomatic “mind–body reaction”
2015 September Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare decides to pay medical expenses to those who suffer from side effects after HPV vaccination
2016 July Girls who suffer from side effects, and their families, sue Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and two pharmaceutical companies