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Table 1 Definitions of codes

From: Newspaper coverage before and after the HPV vaccination crisis began in Japan: a text mining analysis

Categories Codes Contents Examples of terms used in coding rulesa
Prevention of cervical cancer Risk of developing cervical cancer References cervical cancer incidence and mortality rate. incidence, morbidity, mortality, develop, death, year
Cause of cervical cancer Viral infection is the cause of cervical cancer. cause, virus, infection
Effect of HPV vaccination Vaccination can prevent HPV infection and protect women from cervical cancer. prevent, infection, effect
Subsidy for HPV vaccination cost The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and municipalities support costs of HPV vaccination. subsidy, public expense, free of charge
Cancer screening Obtaining cancer screening is recommended. cancer screening
Risk of HPV vaccination Adverse effects References adverse effects of HPV vaccination. side effect, adverse effects, adverse event, intense pain, disorder
Suspension of proactive recommendation of vaccination Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare temporarily suspends proactive recommendation of HPV vaccination. recommendation, suspension, cancellation
Vaccine-induced damage References vaccine-induced damage and victims. drug-induced damage, victim
Lawsuit Girls who suffer from adverse effects, and their families, sued the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and pharmaceutical companies. suit, accuser, court, indemnity
Attitudes of expert organizations Safety statement Statement from expert committees, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), on safety of HPV vaccines WHO, academic organization, statements
Mind–body reaction The expert opinion review meeting in the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare stated that the cause of symptoms after the HPV vaccination is a “mind–body reaction.” mind–body reaction, psychosomatic
Relief for sufferers from adverse effects The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare pays medical expenses to those who suffer from adverse effects after HPV vaccination. relief, compensation, support, medical expense
Survey on adverse effects References a survey conducted in Nagoya comparing vaccinated persons and non-vaccinated individuals on symptoms of adverse effects in approximately 30,000 subjects. Nagoya, survey
  1. aThe authors translated terms from Japanese to English for the purpose of this report