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Table 1 Basic characteristics by waist circumference trajectories at baseline and wave 4 (N = 4992)

From: Waist circumference trajectories and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korean population: the Korean genome and epidemiology study (KoGES)

  Waist circumference (WC) trajectory p-value
Group A (Very low-stable) Group B (Low-stable) Group C (Moderate-stable) Group D (Elevated-increasing) Group E (High-increasing)
N = 4992 N = 635 N = 1426 N = 1662 N = 1012 N = 257  
Waist circumference, cm
 at baseline 69.9 ± 4.5 77.1 ± 4.4 83.7 ± 4.0 90.1 ± 4.0 98.8 ± 5.0 <.0001
 at wave 4 69.5 ± 4.4 77.8 ± 4.2 85.5 ± 4.0 93.3 ± 3.9 102.3 ± 4.7 <.0001
BMI, kg/m2
 at baseline 21.0 ± 2.0 23.1 ± 2.1 24.7 ± 2.0 26.7 ± 2.1 29.9 ± 2.5 <.0001
 at wave 4 20.9 ± 2.0 22.9 ± 2.0 24.6 ± 1.9 26.7 ± 2.1 29.8 ± 2.6 <.0001
Fasting glucose, mg/dl
 at baseline 84.7 ± 7.7 86.5 ± 8.0 87.7 ± 8.2 88.6 ± 8.1 88.9 ± 8.4 <.0001
 at wave 4 86.8 ± 8.0 90.5 ± 8.3 93.3 ± 9.1 95.7 ± 9.8 95.4 ± 9.7 <.0001
Systolic BP, mmHg
 at baseline 110.4 ± 17.3 115.6 ± 16.8 120.8 ± 17.5 125.9 ± 17.5 129.9 ± 18.4 <.0001
 at wave 4 107.4 ± 15.6 113.3 ± 15.0 118.7 ± 15.1 123.4 ± 15.6 127.3 ± 15.3 <.0001
Diastolic BP, mmHg
 at baseline 77.6 ± 11.1 77.3 ± 10.7 81.3 ± 11.3 84.2 ± 11.1 86.6 ± 10.9 <.0001
 at wave 4 74.7 ± 9.5 74.8 ± 9.5 78.3 ± 9.4 81.1 ± 9.1 82.5 ± 8.9 <.0001
Total cholesterol, mg/dl
 at baseline 188.8 ± 32.7 192.6 ± 34.4 198.5 ± 35.0 201.8 ± 33.5 206.3 ± 38.2 <.0001
 at wave 4 194.9 ± 34.1 195.6 ± 34.9 196.3 ± 34.3 196.6 ± 34.5 198.6 ± 31.4 0.6138
N (%)  
Age, years
  < 50 235 (37.0) 375 (26.3) 344 (20.7) 133 (13.1) 28 (10.9) <.0001
 50–59 246 (38.7) 635 (44.5) 658 (39.6) 386 (38.1) 71 (27.6)  
 60+ 154 (24.3) 416 (29.2) 660 (39.7) 493 (48.7) 158 (61.5)  
Sex
 Women 463 (72.9) 809 (56.7) 716 (43.1) 488 (48.2) 174 (67.7) <.0001
Smoking status
 Former smoker 63 (9.9) 221 (15.5) 416 (25.0) 235 (23.2) 34 (13.2) <.0001
 Current smoker 74 (11.7) 237 (16.6) 307 (18.5) 166 (16.4) 30 (11.7)  
Drinking status
 Yes 226 (35.6) 669 (46.9) 900 (54.2) 472 (46.6) 108 (42.0) <.0001
Regular exercise
 Yes 294 (46.3) 624 (43.8) 677 (40.7) 362 (35.8) 74 (28.8) <.0001
  1. Abbreviation: BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, SD standard deviation