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Table 3 Prevalence Ratio (PR) of cardiovascular disease risk factors stratified by socio-demographic variables, Cochabamba, Bolivia, 2015–2016

From: Prevalence and determinants of cardiovascular disease risk factors using the WHO STEPS approach in Cochabamba, Bolivia

  STEP 1: Behavioural Risk Factors (PR, 95% CI) SETEP 2: Physical Measurements (PR, 95% CI)
Socio-demographic variables Current daily smoker Current alcohol consumption Low fruit and vegetable consumption Low level of physical activity Overweight and obesity Abdominal obesity Raised blood pressure
Gender
 Female Reference category
 Male 6.62 (5.71–7.67) * 1.61 (1.54–1.68) * 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 0.74 (0.71–0.76) * 0.88 (0.85–0.91) * 0.62 (0.60–0.65) * 1.48 (1.36–1.61) *
Age group
 18–29 Reference category
 30–44 1.16 (1.01–1.32) * 1.33 (1.26–1.40) * 1.01 (0.98–1.04) 0.86 (0.83–0.89) * 1.71 (1.63–1.78) * 1.66 (1.58–1.73) * 1.84 (1.63–2.09) *
 45–59 1.17 (1.00–1.37) * 1.33 (1.26–1.42) * 1.02 (0.98–1.05) 0.86 (0.82–0.90) * 1.74 (1.66–1.83) * 1.75 (1.67–1.84) * 2.98 (2.64–3.38) *
  ≥ 60 0.89 (0.75–1.05) 0.95 (0.88–1.02) 1.08 (1.05–1.11) * 1.04 (1.01–1.08) * 1.44 (1.37–1.52) * 1.50 (1.42–1.58) * 3.43 (3.05–3.85) *
Residence
Andean Reference category
 Southern cone 1.06 (0.81–1.39) 1.26 (1.12–1.42) * 1.03 (0.98–1.08) 0.91 (0.83–0.99) * 1.26 (1.14–1.39) * 1.29 (1.16–1.43) * 2.83 (2.25–3.56) *
 Central Valley 1.03 (0.85–1.25) 1.28 (1.17–1.40) * 0.89 (0.86–0.93) * 1.11 (1.05–1.17) * 1.25 (1.16–1.35) * 1.31 (1.21–1.42) * 1.87 (1.53–2.28) *
 Tropics 1.39 (1.13–1.70) * 1.28 (1.16–1.41) * 0.95 (0.91–0.99) * 0.85 (0.80–0.91) * 1.32 (1.22–1.44) * 1.49 (1.37–1.62) * 1.86 (1.50–2.31) *
 High Valley 0.65 (0.53–0.80) 1.13 (1.03–1.23) * 0.99 (0.96–1.03) * 1.20 (1.13–1.26) * 1.23 (1.14–1.33) * 1.31 (1.21–1.42) * 1.74 (1.42–2.14) *
Ethnicity
Mestizo and other Reference category
 Indigenous 0.88 (0.79–0.98) * 0.94 (0.90–0.98) * 1.08 (1.06–1.11) * 0.89 (0.86–0.91) * 0.96 (0.92–0.99) * 0.98 (0.95–1.02) 0.98 (0.89–1.06)
Education
 No formal schooling 0.47 (0.35–0.62) * 0.53 (0.47–0.59) * 1.21 (1.15–1.26) * 0.93 (0.88–0.99) * 0.87 (0.88–0.94) * 1.06 (0.99–1.14) 1.24 (1.05–1.46) *
 Primary school 0.72 (0.62–0.85) * 0.72 (0.68–0.76) * 1.13 (1.09–1.18) * 0.87 (0.83–0.90) * 0.98 (0.93–1.03) 1.00 (0.95–1.06) 0.97 (0.85–1.10)
 Secondary school 0.84 (0.72–0.98) * 0.73 (0.68–0.77) * 1.08 (1.04–1.13) * 0.94 (0.90–0.98) * 0.84 (0.80–0.89) * 0.84 (0.79–0.89) * 0.74 (0.65–0.85) *
Higher education Reference category
Marital Status
Never married Reference category
 Currently married or cohabitating 0.91 (0.81–1.02) 1.21 (1.15–1.27) * 1.00 (0.98–1.03) 0.89 (0.87–0.92) * 1.67 (1.59–1.75) * 1.75 (1.66–1.84) * 1.61 (1.45–1.80) *
 Widowed or separated 0.82 (0.66–1.03) 1.03 (0.94–1.13) 1.06 (1.02–1.10) * 1.03 (0.98–1.08) 1.67 (1.56–1.79) * 1.84 (1.72–1.96) * 2.48 (2.15–2.85) *
Occupation/labour market position/status
Student Reference category
 Self-employed 2.61 (2.16–3.16) * 2.01 (1.85–2.19) * 1.04 (1.01–1.07) * 0.62 (0.60–0.64) * 2.16 (1.98–2.35) * 2.04 (1.87–2.22) * 2.88 (2.40–3.46) *
 Employed 2.42 (1.94–3.01) * 2.28 (2.08–2.50) * 0.97 (0.93–1.02) 0.81 (0.77–0.85) * 2.11 (1.92–2.32) * 2.15 (1.96–2.36) * 2.57 (2.08–3.17) *
 Homemaker 0.34 (0.25–0.46) * 1.28 (1.16–1.41) * 1.04 (1.01–1.08) * 0.98 (0.95–1.01) 2.32 (2.13–2.53) * 2.56 (2.35–2.78) * 2.23 (1.84–2.71) *
 Retired 1.62 (1.09–2.40) * 1.52 (1.28–1.80) * 1.02 (0.94–1.98) 1.11 (1.06–1.17) * 2.21 (1.95–2.51) * 2.13 (1.86–2.43) * 5.58 (4.44–7.02) *
 Unemployed 1.33 (0.82–2.14) 1.22 (0.98–1.52) 1.03 (0.95–1.12) 1.10 (1.04–1.17) * 1.90 (1.62–2.22) * 2.08 (1.79–2.41) * 2.75 (1.98–3.82) *
  1. *Significant Results: P value < 0.05; PR Prevalence Ratio
  2. aValues in parentheses are 95% confidence intervals (CI)
  3. bRaised blood pressure was defined as having blood pressure > 130/85 mmHg or taking an antihypertensive drug
  4. cParticipants with a body mass index ≥25 were classified as being overweight or obese