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Table 5 Hazard Ratios and population attributable fraction from the multi-variable analysis of potential risk factors in relation to premature mortality excluded current smokers, prevalent CVD/cancer and survival less than 3 years; Tehran Lipid and Glucose study (1999–2014)

From: Incidence and associated risk factors for premature death in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study cohort, Iran

  Hazard ratio (95% CI) P value Prevalencea PAF, %b
Sex (Female) 0.67 (0.46–0.97) 0.036 0.55 (0.47–0.63) −27.1
Body mass index
 Normal Reference   0.30 (0.23–0.38)  
 Overweight 0.59 (0.39–0.88) 0.011 0.36 (0.29–0.44) −25.0
 Obese 0.67 (0.43–1.04) 0.072 0.33 (0.26–0.41) −16.3
Hypercholesterolemia, 1.05 (0.74–1.50) 0.781 0.38 (0.30–0.46)  
Hypertension 1.12 (0.78–1.60) 0.536 0.40 (0.31–0.47)  
Diabetes 2.62 (1.84–3.72) < 0.001 0.37 (0.30–0.45) 22.9
Education
 Primary/Illiterate Reference   0.58 (0.50–0.66)  
 Cycle/Diploma 0.98 (0.66–1.46) 0.923 0.32 (0.24–0.39)  
 Higher than diploma 1.17 (0.64–2.11) 0.611 0.10 (0.05–0.15)  
Low physical activity 1.35 (0.91–2.00) 0.139 0.23 (0.17–0.30)  
FH-CVD 1.58 (1.07–2.32) 0.022 0.23 (0.16–0.30) 8.4
  1. All definitions and variables explained as footnotes for Table 2
  2. aPrevalence and CI of the risk factors among individuals who had an event
  3. bPAF: population attributable fraction calculated for p value< 0.05; formula for calculating PAF=P×[(HRadj 1)/HRadj] × 100
  4. CI confidence interval, CVD cardiovascular disease, P prevalence