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Table 4 Hazard ratios and population attributable fraction from the multi-variable analysis of potential risk factors in relation to premature mortality; Tehran Lipid and Glucose study (1999–2014)

From: Incidence and associated risk factors for premature death in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study cohort, Iran

  Hazard ratio (95% CI) P value Prevalencea PAF, %b
Sex (Female) 0.57 (0.43–0.76) < 0.001 0.42 (0.36–0.47) −31.7
Body mass index
 Normal Reference   0.33 (0.28–0.39)  
 Overweight 0.65 (0.49–0.87) 0.004 0.39 (0.33–0.45) −21.0
 Obese 0.67 (0.48–0.94) 0.020 0.28 (0.22–0.33) −13.8
Hypercholesterolemia 1.13 (0.87–1.46) 0.377 0.40 (0.35–0.46)  
Hypertension 1.40 (1.07–1.83) 0.016 0.43 (0.37–0.48) 12.3
Diabetes 2.53 (1.94–3.29) < 0.001 0.37 (0.31–0.43) 22.4
Smoking 1.58 (1.16–2.17) 0.004 0.25 (0.20–0.30) 9.2
Education
 Primary/Illiterate Reference   0.56 (0.50–0.61)  
 Cycle/Diploma 0.89 (0.67–1.19) 0.445 0.37 (0.31–0.42)  
 Higher than diploma 0.79 (0.48–1.28) 0.329 0.08 (0.05–0.11)  
Low physical activity 1.10 (0.83–1.47) 0.491 0.25 (0.20–0.30)  
FH-CVD 1.43 (1.07–1.91) 0.015 0.23 (0.18–0.28) 6.9
Prevalent CVD 2.18 (1.57–3.02) < 0.001 0.19 (0.14–0.23) 10.3
  1. The analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards models considering the age as time scale
  2. All definitions and variables explained as footnotes for Table 2
  3. aPrevalence and CI of the risk factors among individuals who had an event
  4. bPAF: population attributable fraction calculated for p value< 0.05; formula for calculating PAF = P×[(HRadj–1)/HRadj] × 100
  5. CI confidence interval, P prevalence